Are there Biblical Prophecies about Muhammad? No and Yes
Submitted by Lactantius Jr (United Kingdom), May 28, 2009 at 09:27
To Mohammad Waqa Raja (upon whom be peace)
I greet you in the precious Name of the Lord Jesus Christ, the Prince of Peace, the author and distributor of peace, and I wish you His peace.
Like many Muslims, you claim the Bible contains prophecies about Muhammad, and the Bible does indeed contain clear prophecies about him, these being documented below.
Responding to all your assertions that Muhammad is prophesied in the Bible is not 'sound-bite' stuff, and so, I do not respond to all the Biblical passages you advance as supporting prophecies to Muhammad, but the two I do respond to John 14:15-17 and Deuteronomy 18:18 will demonstrate how easy it is to undercut and overturn your assertions, and show how damaging to Islam and Muhammad's prophetic claim, your assertions are.
The Qur'an expressly states that both the Old and New Testaments contain references to Muhammad:
Those who follow the Messenger, The unlettered Prophet, Whom they find mentioned In their own (Scriptures)—In the Law and the Gospel— ... It is they who will prosper.
"And remember, Jesus, The son of Mary, said: 'O Children of Israel! I am the messenger of Allah (Sent) to you, confirming The Law (which came) Before me, and giving Glad Tidings of a Messenger To come after me, Whose name shall be Ahmad [i.e. Muhammad]."
The Bible verse at John 14:15-17 you quote, has Jesus using the Greek word paraclete to describe Who He was going to send to His disciples, paraclete usually being rendered Advocate, Intercessor Comforter or Helper, with perhaps no English word broad enough to cover all the significance of the word "Paraclete" except the word "Helper." The Spirit helps the disciples in all the above-indicated ways. Of course the objection to this translation is that it is too indefinite. The specific Christian conception is lost in the comprehensiveness of the term. Our conclusion, therefore, is that the term "Paraclete" itself would perhaps be the best designation of the Holy Spirit in the passage in John's Gospel.
Cited in Paraclete in the Bible at http://tinyurl.com/p97egd
Jesus prophecy was that the paraclete would be in them and dwell with them forever. This was something entirely new, and it was by no means invalidated because the Holy Spirit was already in Jesus.
Jesus says that the paraclete would be with his disciples forever. In no sense was Muhammad ever with Jesus' disciples, let alone with them permanently, and according to Jesus' prophecy, the world cannot receive the paraclete because it cannot see Him. Thousands of people saw Muhammad during his lifetime, for he was visible. Thus, the invisible paraclete cannot be the visible Muhammad.
Jesus tells the disciples that the paraclete was already with them. While the paraclete was with Jesus' disciples, Muhammad wasn't born for more than five centuries after this prophecy and therefore couldn't have been with them.
The paraclete was to be in the disciples. Muhammad was not one of Jesus' followers and never will be. The Holy Spirit, on the other hand, filled the believers at Pentecost and has been in Christians ever since. Jesus said that He would send the paraclete from the Father. Muslims do not believe that Muhammad was sent by Jesus; they believe that Muhammad was sent by Allah. So, unless Muslims are willing to admit that Jesus is the all-Holy Triune God, they should not accept this as a prophecy about Muhammad.
Finally, prior to his ascension, Jesus predicted that his followers would "be baptized with the Holy Ghost not many days hence" Acts 1:5. The Holy Spirit came to Jesus' followers shortly after his ascension to the Father:
And when the day of Pentecost was fully come, they were all with one accord in one place. And suddenly there came a sound from heaven as of a rushing mighty wind, and it filled all the house where they were sitting. And there appeared unto them cloven tongues like as of fire, and it sat upon each of them. And they were all filled with the Holy Ghost, and began to speak with other tongues, as the Spirit gave them utterance.
Thus, the fulfillment of this prophecy came within a matter of days. Muhammad came more than five hundred years later.
Putting all of this together, it is seen that Muhammad could not have been the paraclete. He was not with the apostles, he was not in the apostles, he was not with them forever, he was not invisible, he was not sent by Jesus, and he did not come quickly, as Jesus said He would. Yet the Holy Spirit matches this description perfectly. Jesus identified the paraclete as the Holy Spirit, Who was with the disciples, was in them at Pentecost, was invisible, came quickly, was sent by Jesus, and has been with Christians for nearly two thousand years.
The Lord Jesus Christ gives further teaching about the Holy Spirit, at John 16:5-15 in a section titled "The Work of the Holy Spirit" in which He says, "The Spirit will bring glory to Me by taking My message and telling it to you." John 16:14
Did Muhammad bring glory to Jesus by taking His life-giving, life-saving message of how to be made right with the all-Holy Triune God, Father, Son and Holy Spirit? No he did not.
Biblical prophecies that do apply to Muhammad
Consider the following passages drawn from the New Testament:
"Beware of false prophets, which come to you in sheep's clothing, but inwardly they are ravening wolves. Ye shall know them by their fruits. Do men gather grapes of thorns, or figs of thistles?"
"Then shall they deliver you up to be afflicted, and shall kill you: and ye shall be hated of all nations for My name's sake. And then shall many be offended, and shall betray one another, and shall hate one another. And many false prophets shall arise, and shall deceive many.
"And no marvel, for Satan himself is transformed into an angel of light. Therefore it is no great thing if his ministers also be transformed as the ministers of righteousness; whose end shall be according to their works."
2 Corinthians 11:14-15
"Now the Spirit speaketh expressly, that in the latter times some shall depart from the faith, giving heed to seducing spirits, and doctrines of devils; speaking lies in hypocrisy, having their conscience seared with a hot iron."
1 Timothy 4:1-2
"For the time will come when they will not endure sound doctrine; but after their own lusts shall they heap to themselves teachers, having itching ears; and they shall turn away their ears from the truth, and shall be turned unto fables."
2 Timothy 4:3-4
These verses need not be applied solely to Muhammad. Yet, without a doubt, Muhammad is a fulfillment of many New Testament prophecies. First, Jesus said that false prophets come in sheep's clothing, but are actually ravening wolves. Muhammad fits this criterion better than anyone else in history. He convinced his followers that he was the greatest moral example in history, yet he murdered countless people, took part in the slave trade, allowed husbands to beat their wives, allowed his men to have sex with their female slaves, had at least nine wives at one time, admittedly spoke Satan's words, that neither he nor his listeners could distinguish from Allah's words, and had sex with a nine-year-old girl. If Muhammad doesn't fulfill Jesus' prophecy, then who does?
Next, Jesus said that false prophets would arise, and that they would deceive many. There are currently more than a billion Muslims in the world, and Islam is one of the world's fastest growing religions. This means that Muhammad is the greatest false prophet of all time, and the most obvious fulfillment of Jesus' prophecy.
Third, the Apostle Paul said that Satan masquerades as an angel of light. If Muhammad had been aware of this, perhaps he would have trusted his first instinct when a spirit claiming to be Gabriel suddenly appeared to him. Muhammad's first impression of his revelations was that he was under demonic attack. This is a clear fulfillment of the Apostle Paul's words.
Fourth, the Apostle Paul said that people would give heed to "seducing spirits" and "doctrines of devils." Muhammad's infamous "Satanic Verses" provide a striking example of this. The Prophet of Islam received revelations saying that it was okay for his followers to pray to gods besides Allah. Later, he claimed that Satan had put those words on his lips. Muhammad was therefore seduced by the doctrines of Satan, just as the Apostle Paul predicted.
Fifth, the Apostle Paul predicted that a time would come when people would not listen to sound doctrine. Instead, they would turn their ears away from the truth and listen to fables. An application of this prophecy can be made to Muslims today. While there are many Muslims who do seek the truth, there are also many who don't seem to care where the evidence points. Instead of acknowledging that Islam is an untenable religion, they go to teachers like Zaki Naik, Jamal Badawi , Shabir Ally and others, who tell them "what their itching ears want to hear."
These prophecies may all be applied to Muhammad and to Islam. Thus, when Muhammad claimed that other messengers of the all-holy God had prophesied about him, he was correct. The problem is that these messengers predicted the rise of false prophets, not the rise of a new religion after Christianity. Tragically, most people haven't heeded the warnings of the prophets. To this day, many even reject the words of Jesus Christ. Yet when a man rises from the dead, vindicated by the all-holy Triune God, everyone should listen to what He says. And when this risen man tells us that false prophets will come, we should be extremely suspicious of anyone claiming to be a prophet—especially someone with Muhammad's character flaws. Indeed, in addition to his other flaws, Muhammad is guilty of rejecting one of the clearest prophecies in history, a prophecy about the death and resurrection of Jesus of Nazareth, "the suffering servant:"
"Who hath believed our report? And to whom is the arm of the LORD revealed? For He shall grow up before him as a tender plant, And as a root out of a dry ground: He hath no form nor comeliness; And when we shall see Him, there is no beauty that we should desire Him. He is despised and rejected of men; A man of sorrows, and acquainted with grief: And we hid as it were our faces from Him; He was despised, and we esteemed Him not. Surely He hath borne our griefs, And carried our sorrows: Yet we did esteem Him stricken, smitten of God, and afflicted. But He was wounded for our transgressions, He was bruised for our iniquities: The chastisement of our peace was upon Him; And with His stripes we are healed. All we like sheep have gone astray; We have turned every one to his own way; And the LORD hath laid on Him the iniquity of us all. He was oppressed, and He was afflicted, Yet He opened not His mouth. He was taken from prison and from judgment: And who shall declare His generation? For He was cut off out of the land of the living: For the transgression of my people was He stricken. And He made His grave with the wicked, And with the rich in His death; Because He had done no violence, Neither was any deceit in His mouth. Yet it pleased the LORD to bruise Him; He hath put Him to grief: When thou shalt make His soul an offering for sin, He shall see His seed, He shall prolong His days, And the pleasure of the LORD shall prosper in His hand. He shall see of the travail of His soul, and shall be satisfied: By His knowledge shall my righteous servant justify many; For He shall bear their iniquities. Therefore will I divide Him a portion with the great, And He shall divide the spoil with the strong; Because He hath poured out his soul unto death: And He was numbered with the transgressors; And He bare the sin of many, And made intercession for the transgressors."
So, neither the Bible nor the Lord Jesus Christ prophecy the coming of a prophet after Him in the line of Biblical prophets, who will close the line of prophets, but yes, most emphatically yes, the Lord Jesus Christ does prophecy the coming of false prophets after Him, and Muhammad exactly 'foots the bill.'
I conclude by saying it is very telling that an 'Open Challenge' made to Shabir Ally by Sam Shamoun, around seven and a half years ago on 25th.November 2001, has not yet been accepted, with Sam saying,
"His unwillingness to debate this topic only reinforces our suspicions that Shabir is aware that he cannot win such a debate. I have requested such a debate many times in personal communication with him. He always finds ways to avoid it."
Therefore, I am issuing a public challenge to Shabir Ally.
Debate me on the credibility of your prophet.
Does it bother you Mohammad, that one of Islam's premier debaters is clearly unwilling to publicly debate Muhammad's prophetic credentials?
Now, turning to your assertion that Deuteronomy 18:18 prophecies the coming of Muhammad, and I quote the rendering of this verse by the New Living Translation, which clearly shows Muhammad was not in view, by referring to "Israelites" as the group from whom the prophet would come
"I will raise up a prophet like you from among their fellow Israelites. I will put my words in his mouth, and he will tell the people everything I command him."
Muhammad was not an Israelite was he?
I now draw on the work of Cornelius at http://tinyurl.com/ogyf9j which demonstrates how unlike Moses Muhammad was, and I show that quoting Deuteronomy 18:18-22 is very damaging to Islam and Muhammad, who would undoubtedly have been killed as a false prophet.
Typical similarities between Moses and Muhammad claimed by Muslim apologists:
1) Both had normal births. 2) Both had normal deaths. 3) Both led armies. 4) Both were political leaders. 5) Both were rejected by their people but later became their accepted leaders. 6) Both brought new laws to their people. 7) Both emigrated before ultimately obtaining power. 8) Both had successors that conquered Palestine.
But let's look at the dissimilarities,
Muhammad not like Moses
1) Moses performed miraculous signs, Muhammad didn't: "Why are not (signs) sent to him, like those which were sent to Moses?" Surah 28:48
2) Moses spoke directly with God, Muhammad didn't:
a) "And to Moses Allah spoke directly" Surah 4:164.
b) "it is not fitting for a man that Allah should speak to him except by inspiration, or from behind a veil, or by the sending of a messenger" Surah 42:51
c) The Hadith makes clear that Muhammad never saw his Lord. Sahih al-Bukhari, Volume 4, Book 54, No. 457: Narrated Aisha: "Whoever claimed that (the Prophet) Muhammad saw his Lord, is committing a great fault, for he only saw Gabriel in his genuine shape in which he was created covering the whole horizon." Also in Bukhari Vol. 6, Book 60, No. 378: "Narrated Masruq: I said to 'Aisha, "O Mother! Did Prophet Muhammad see his Lord?" Aisha said, "What you have said makes my hair stand on end! Know that if somebody tells you one of the following three things, he is a liar: Whoever tells you that Muhammad saw his Lord, is a liar." Then Aisha recited the Verse: 'No vision can grasp Him, but His grasp is over all vision. He is the Most Courteous Well-Acquainted with all things.' (6.103) 'It is not fitting for a human being that Allah should speak to him except by inspiration or from behind a veil.' (42.51) 'Aisha further said, "And whoever tells you that the Prophet knows what is going to happen tomorrow, is a liar." She then recited: 'No soul can know what it will earn tomorrow.' (31.34) She added: "And whoever tell you that he concealed (some of Allah's orders), is a liar." Then she recited: 'O Apostle! Proclaim (the Message) which has been sent down to you from your Lord...' (5.67) 'Aisha added. "But the Prophet saw Gabriel in his true form twice.""
3) Moses never thought he was demon-possessed, Muhammad did. Ibn Ishaq's "Sirat Rasul Allah," The Life of Muhammad translated by A. Guillaume, p. 106: (Muhammad Speaking) "Now none of God's creatures was more hateful to me than an (ecstatic) poet or a man possessed: I could not even look at them. I thought, Woe is me poet or possessed — Never shall the Quraysh say this of me! I will go to the top of the mountain and throw myself down that I may kill myself and gain rest."
4) Moses never tried to commit suicide, Muhammad did. See point 3 and the History of Tabari , vol. 6, p. 76
5) Moses was clear-minded to the end, but Muhammad became delirious and mentally confused: Sahih al-Bukhari, Volume 2, Book 23, Number 471: "Narrated 'Aisha: During his sickness, Allah's Apostle was asking repeatedly, "Where am I today? Where will I be tomorrow?" And I was waiting for the day of my turn (impatiently). Then, when my turn came, Allah took his soul away (in my lap) between my chest and arms and he was buried in my house."
6) Moses never uttered verses from Satan but Muhammad had the Satanic Verses. (History of Tabari [1192-1193], vol. 6, p. 111) "Al-Qasim b. al-Hasan—al-Husayn b. Daud—Hajja—Abu Mashar—Muhammad b. Ka'b al-Qurazi and Muhammad b. Qays: The Messenger of God was sitting in a large gathering of Quraysh, wishing that day that no revelation would come to him from God which would cause them to turn away from him. Then God revealed:
By the Star when it sets, your comrade does not err, nor is he deceived …
and the Messenger of God recited it until he came to:
Have you thought upon al-Lat and al-'Uzza and Manat, the third, the other?
when Satan cast on his tongue two phrases:
These are the high flying cranes; verily their intercession is to be desired.
He uttered them and went on to complete the surah. When he prostrated himself at the end of the surah, the whole company prostrated themselves with him. Al-Walid b. al-Mughirah raised some dust to his forehead and bowed over that, since he was a very old man and could not prostrate himself. They were satisfied with what Muhammad had uttered and said, "We recognize that it is Allah who gives life and death, who creates and who provides sustenance, but if these gods of ours intercede for us with him, and if you give them a share, we are with you."
That evening Gabriel came to him and reviewed the surah with him, and when he reached the two phrases which Satan had cast upon his tongue he said, "I did not bring you these two." Then the Messenger of Allah said, "I have fabricated things against Allah and have imputed to Him words which He has not spoken." Then Allah revealed to him:
'And they indeed strove hard to beguile you away from what we have revealed to you, that you should invent other than it against us…'" Surah 17:73
7) Muhammad admitted speaking presumptuously in the name of Allah, Al-at, Al-Uzza, and Manat, failing to meet the criteria given in Deut. 18:20: "But the prophet, which shall presume to speak a word in my name, which I have not commanded him to speak, or that shall speak in the name of other gods, even that prophet shall die."
8) Moses was never bewitched, but Muhammad was (Al-Bukhari, vol. VII, no. 658). "Narrated Aisha: A man called Labid bin al-A'sam from the tribe of Bani Zaraiq worked magic on Allah's Apostle until Allah's Apostle started imagining that the had done a thing that he had not really done. One day or one night he was with us, he invoked Allah and invoked for a long period, and then said, 'O Aisha! Do you know that Allah has instructed me concerning the matter I have asked him about? Two men came to me and one of them sat near my head and the other replied, 'He is under the effect of magic.' The first one asked, 'Who has worked the magic on him?' The other replied, 'Labid bin Al-Asam' …" (see also no. 660)
9) Moses believed he was a prophet before his wife did, Muhammad's wife was the first to believe he was a prophet. The History of Tabari , translated by W. Montgomery Watt, vol. 6, p. 72: "When I came to Khadijah, I sat down with my thigh next to hers, and she said to me, "Abu al-Qasim, where have you been? I sent messengers to look for you all the way to Mecca and back." I said to her, "I am either a poet or a madman," but she answered, "May Allah save you from that, Abu al-Qasim! Allah would not do that to you, considering what I know of your thruthfulness, your great trustworthiness, your good character, and your good treatment of your kinfolk. It is not that, cousin. Perhaps you did see something." "Yes," I said, and then told her what I had seen. "Rejoice, cousin, and stand firm," she said. "By Him is whose hand is Khadijah's soul, I hope that you may be the prophet of this community."
10) God persuaded Moses that he was a prophet by miraculous signs of a burning bush that was not consumed (Exodus 3:2) and other miraculous signs (Exodus 4), Muhammad was persuaded by his wife Khadija taking off her clothes and treating Muhammad to a spot of 'lap-dancing' Ibn Ishaq's "Sirat Rasul Allah", The Life of Muhammad, translated by A. Guillaume, p. 107: "Isma'il b. Abu Hakim, a freedman of the family of al-Zubayr, told me on Khadija's authority that she said to the apostle of Allah, 'O son of my uncle, are you able to tell me about your visitant, when he comes to you ?' He replied that he could, and she asked him to tell her when he came. So when Gabriel came to him, as he was wont, the apostle said to Khadija, 'This is Gabriel who has just come to me.' 'Get up, O son of my uncle,' she said, 'and sit by my left thigh'. The apostle did so, and she said, 'Can you see him?' 'Yes,' he said. She said, 'Then turn round and sit on my right thigh.' He did so, and she said, 'Can you see him?' When he said that he could she asked him to move and sit in her lap. When he had done this she again asked if he could see him, and when he said yes, she disclosed her form and cast aside her veil while the apostle was sitting in her lap. Then she said, 'Can you see him?' And he replied, 'No.' She said, 'O son of my uncle, rejoice and be of good heart, by Allah he is an angel and not a satan.'"
11) Muhammad said he was different from all other prophets, that would include Moses: Bukhari Volume 1, Book 7, Number 331: Narrated Jabir bin 'Abdullah: The Prophet said, "I have been given five things which were not given to any one else before me. 1. Allah made me victorious by awe, (by His frightening my enemies) for a distance of one month's journey. 2. The earth has been made for me (and for my followers) a place for praying and a thing to perform Tayammum, therefore anyone of my followers can pray wherever the time of a prayer is due. 3. The booty has been made Halal (lawful) for me yet it was not lawful for anyone else before me. 4. I have been given the right of intercession (on the Day of Resurrection). 5. Every Prophet used to be sent to his nation only but I have been sent to all mankind."
12) Muhammad's god is not like Moses' God: Allah is called the greatest of all deceivers Surah 3:54 Makareen, translated plotter or schemer, means deceivers, double crossers. Moses' God does not lie or go back on his word. "God is not a man, that He should lie, Nor a son of man, that He should repent; Has He said, and will He not do it? Or has He spoken, and will He not make it good?" Numbers 23:19 In our next passage we find that, unlike YHWH, Allah doesn't make good on all that he has spoken but abrogates much of it.
13) Moses didn't abrogate his own revelations, Muhammad did. Surah 2:106 (Pickthall) "Nothing of our revelation (even a single verse) do we abrogate or cause be forgotten, but we bring (in place) one better or the like thereof. Knowest thou not that Allah is Able to do all things?"
Many other dissimilarities could be mentioned, such as Moses never married the wife of his adopted son, Moses was a Jew, Muhammad was an Arab, the manner of Moses' revelations were quite different from that of Muhammad, etc. Yet there is something more fundamental:
Whose Name did Muhammad speak in, did he speak in the Name of Yahweh which occurs ~ 6,823 times in the Old Testament Scriptures, no he didn't, he spoke in the name of a god called Allah, and whoever he is, he is not Yahweh.
If we were to take a survey of the names for God found in the Bible and the Qur'an, we would find a rather interesting contrast. The General name for God in Hebrew is Elohim, which is mentioned 2,550 times. In Arabic it is Allah. The Descriptive name for God in Hebrew is Adonai, meaning Lord, and is mentioned only 340 times. In Arabic the equivalent is Rabb. But the Specific and Personal name for God in Hebrew, the name which God Himself asked Moses to use when referring to Him, is Yahweh, which means "the One who Is." This name is repeated 6,823 times in the Old Testament alone! And it is never mentioned in the Qur'an, there being no evidence that Muhammad even knew this most holy and personal Name of the true and living God.
Now, looking further at the Deuteronomy passage, here is Deuteronomy 18: 18-22 as rendered in the New Living Bible,
"I will raise up a prophet like you from among their fellow Israelites. I will put my words in his mouth, and he will tell the people everything I command him. I will personally deal with anyone who will not listen to the messages the prophet proclaims on my behalf. But any prophet who falsely claims to speak in My name or who speaks in the name of another god must die.' But you may wonder, 'How will we know whether or not a prophecy is from the Lord?' If the prophet speaks in the Lord's name but his prediction does not happen or come true, you will know that the Lord did not give that message. That prophet has spoken without my authority and need not be feared."
Not only was Muhammad not the prophet foretold in Deuteronomy 18, but according to that very passage, he was not a true prophet at all. Accordingly, although Muhammad uttered many curses and imprecations on anyone who would deny him the all important title of prophet, and even though he would often buttress this demand by saying that Allah would punish those who do not submit to him as the messenger of Allah, according to Deuteronomy 18 there isn't the slightest reason for anyone to fear, for these are the words of a presumptuous man. Indeed, the divine command is, "That 'prophet' has spoken without My authority and need not be feared."
While you and other Muslims appeal to Deuteronomy 18:15-19 as evidence for Muhammad's prophetic credentials, you would do well to read the next verse, which, when combined with a certain embarrassing event from Muhammad's life ("the satanic verses"), turns out to be proof against the prophet of Islam. In Deuteronomy 18:20, Yahweh God declares:
"But the prophet, which shall presume to speak a word in my name, which I have not commanded him to speak, or that shall speak in the name of other gods, even that prophet shall die."
Here Yahweh God gives us two criteria for recognizing a false prophet: (1) If a person delivers a revelation which doesn't come from Yahweh God, the person is a false prophet; and (2) if a person speaks in the name of other gods, the person is a false prophet. Interestingly, Muhammad meets both criteria, for he delivered the infamous "Satanic Verses" (i.e. verses he gave to his followers as part of the Qur'an but later claimed were inspired by Satan). Since these verses did not come from Yahweh God, Muhammad meets the first criterion. And since the verses promoted polytheism, Muhammad meets the second criterion as well. Hence, the very passage that Muslims claim as their primary Biblical prophecy about Muhammad turns out to declare that Muhammad can't be a prophet at all! (For a much fuller treatment of Deuteronomy 18:20 as evidence against Muhammad, see "The Deuteronomy Deductions." By David Wood at, http://tinyurl.com/opfy7c
I repeat that it is time for you and other Muslims to look to a different messenger, One who is truly worthy of our admiration, adoration, praise, reverence, and worship, the Lord Jesus Christ, the Prince of Peace, the spotless Lamb of God, the sinners all-sufficient saviour, "Who is able to save to the uttermost (and from the guttermost!!) all those who come to God through Him" Hebrews 7:25 and I warmly commend Him to you.
With kind regards and best wishes
Note: Opinions expressed in comments are those of the authors alone and not necessarily those of Daniel Pipes. Original writing only, please. Comments are screened and in some cases edited before posting. Reasoned disagreement is welcome but not comments that are scurrilous, off-topic, commercial, disparaging religions, or otherwise inappropriate. For complete regulations, see the "Guidelines for Reader Comments".
Reader comments (1084) on this item
Comment on this item
Support Daniel Pipes' work with a tax-deductible donation to the Middle East Forum. Daniel J. Pipes