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Contrasting your claims with the Encyclopedia of Islam

Reader comment on item: Is Allah God? - Continued
in response to reader comment: Pre-history of Islam

Submitted by zzazzeefrazzee (United States), Jul 2, 2008 at 16:00

Leonard, I took the liberty of posting the entry "al- ʿArab: The Arabs." from the Encyclopedia of Islam. You should carefully read this and contrast it with the claims you posted. If you do so, you will see that they are not to be found. You are most welcome to reply with full citations and sources (including manuscript accession numbers) used by Oaks and Oberoi. Better yet, why not determine the exact entry in Worldcat, so that everyone here can see how they can obtain a copy from the library.

"al- ʿArab: The Arabs."
[Print Version: Volume I, page 524, column 2]

Full Citation:

Grohmann, A.; Caskel, W.; Spuler, B.; Spuler, B.; Wiet, G.; Marçais, G. "al- ʿArab." Encyclopaedia of Islam. Edited by: P. Bearman , Th. Bianquis , C.E. Bosworth , E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs. Brill, 2008.

(i) the ancient history of the arabs

(For the ethnic origins of the Arabs cf. al-ʿArab ( Ḏj̲azīrat al-), section on Ethnography, cf. also para ii, below).

The early history of the Arabs is still obscure; their origin and the events governing their early years are equally unknown to us. Probably we would know a good deal more about them, if Uranius' five books of ᾿Αραβικά, which constituted a special monograph on the Arabs, had been preserved. What we know about them is derived chiefly from the Assyrian records, the classical writers, and, as far as the history of the last three centuries before Islam is concerned, from Muslim tradition and some pre-islamic Nabataean and Arabic inscriptions .

Possibly "the Aramaean Bedouins", who in 880 B.C. interfered in the affairs of Bet-Zamāni on the upper Euphrates and helped to overthrow the local vassal of the Assyrian king Assur Naṣirpal, were predecessors of the Arabs. Their anti-Assyrian policy was subsequently followed by the Arabs, who first appear in the light of history in 854 B.C.: Gindibu, the Arab with 1000 camel troops from Aribi territory, joined Bir-ʾidri of Damascus (the biblical Benhadad II) against Salmanassar III at the battle of Ḳarḳar in which, it is said the Asyrian king was successful. Perhaps the camp of Gindibu ¶ was situated somewhere south-east of Damascus . Certainly the bedouin element of the Arabian Peninsula—for which Aram, ʿEber, and Ḵh̲abiru are probably synonyms—was to be found originally in the area which extended between Syria and Mesopotamia and which, including Syria, was the oldest centre of the Semites.

If the hypothesis, presented by F. Hommel (Ethnologie, 550), that the land of Magan corresponds to Arabic Maʿān and forms the starting point for the foundation of the South-Arabian kingdom of Maʿīn, were established—though it would be difficult to prove it—the South-Arabian tribe of the Minaeans must have detached themselves from Arab nomads settled in this country, which had already been included in the Babylonian Empire by Naram-Sin (2320 to 2284 B.C.). The traditional pro-Babylonian policy of the Arabs would, therefore, be understandable because of their old political and cultural relations with Babylonia.

The geographical position of the land of Aribi between Syria and Mesopotamia , and the rôle of the Arabs in the traffic on the commercial routes leading from the Persian Gulf to Syria, from Syria to Egypt and Southern Arabia, and along the Wādī Dawāsir through the highlands of Nad̲j̲d to Maʿīn, influenced historical events in the Near East. The struggle for the possession of these important high roads characterises the course of history during the last two millennia B.C. and the Roman period.

Already in 738 B.C., during the reign of Tiglat-Pilesar III (745 to 726 B.C.), who had occupied Gaza , the terminal point of the "incense" road from Southern Arabia to the Mediterranean Sea, Zabibē, the queen of the Aribi region, sent tribute to the Assyrian king. She probably ruled the oasis of Adumu ( Dūmat al-Ḏj̲andal ) and was high priestess of the Ḳedar tribe, to which the oasis paid tribute. In 734 B.C. Tiglat appointed the Arab Idibaʾil as his representative in the land of Muṣri (Midian and Northern Hid̲j̲az), through which the "incense" road passed, and in 732 B.C. he subdued another queen of Aribi, Samsī—who had apparently joined a coalition of the king of Damascus and several Arab tribes, among them Masʾa (Massa in Genesis xxv, 13 f.), Tema ( Taymāʾ ), Ḵh̲ayappa (ʿEfa, a Midianite tribe in the territory of Ḥesma, east of Taymāʾ ), the Badana (south-east of the oasis of el-ʿElāʾ-Daydān) and Sabʾa (the Sabaeans)—conquered two of her cities and besieged her camp, so that she sent white camels as a tribute; the aforementioned Arab tribes were also compelled to pay tribute, and Idibaʾil (the Adbeʾēl of Genesis xxv, 13), who resided near Gaza , was forced to recognise Assyrian suzerainty. In order to be sure of the loyalty of queen Samsī's land, Tiglat-Pilesar III appointed a resident at her court. As the cities subdued by the Assyrian king were situated on the caravan road in southern Ḥawrān and northern Ḥid̲j̲āz , it is obvious that the object of the struggle was the possession of the northern part of the caravan road from Mārib to Gaza ( G̲h̲azza ). Nevertheless his success in subduing these people was neither complete nor lasting, for in 715 B.C. king Sargon II (722 to 705 B.C.) again defeated the Ḵh̲ayappa as well as the Tamūdi ( T̲h̲amūd , west of the oasis of Taymāʾ ) and the Marsimani ( south of ʿAḳaba ), and Samsī, queen of Aribi, and the Sabaeans are again recorded as paying tribute. In 703 B.C. the Arabs (Yatiʾe was the queen of Aribi) helped the Babylonian king Marduk-apal-iddina against Sennacherib, king of Assyria (705 to 681 B.C.); but the Arab troops were¶ taken prisoner by the Assyrians, and Sennacherib seems to have possessed considerable influence over the Arabs, as Herodotus (ii, 141) calls him "king of the Arabs and Assyrians" (F. Hommel, Ethnologie, 574). In 689 B.C., after the defeat of Babylon , Sennacherib attacked the camps of the Arab clans subject to queen Teʾelk̲h̲unu, routed them and pursued them into the inner desert around Adummatu ( Dūmat al-Ḏj̲andal ). The settlers of this large oasis were dependent upon the Ḳedar tribe which had control over Northern Arabia (the Palmyrene). The queen and priestess of Adummatu, Teʾelk̲h̲unu, and her lieutenant Ḵh̲azaʾil, king of Aribi, had taken refuge here; the latter, after a dispute with the queen, fled into the inner desert, but was pardoned by Assarhaddon, Sennacherib's successor, who recognised him as chief of all the Ḳedar. Ḵh̲azaʾil died in 675 B.C., and his son Uaiteʾ (Yataʾ) succeeded him, paying a heavy tribute to the Assyrian king, who had sent back Teʾelk̲h̲unu's daughter Tabuʾa to Ḵh̲azaʾil as queen and priestess. In 676 B.C. Assarhaddon made an expedition against the Bāzu (Būz) and Ḵh̲azu (Ḵh̲azō) in the depression of the Wādī Sirḥān . When S̲h̲amas̲h̲-s̲h̲um-ukīn, the king of Babylon , revolted against Assurbanipal, the Ḳedar under Uaiteʾ began hostilities against him and plundered the western borders of the country between Ḥamāʾ and Edom, but were driven back to the desert; when they again plundered the Assyrian provinces, they were forced to flee to Ḥawrān , while king Uaiteʾ, expelled by his own subjects, who were enraged by the devastation of their lands during the campaign, was captured and brought to Niniveh. The Nabayati and the Ḳedar, settled in the Palmyrene and south of Damascus , and the Ḥarar in the southern Sirḥān valley were also subdued by Assyrian forces coming from Damascus , while an auxiliary detachment, which fought in Babylon on the side of the Babylonian king, was completely destroyed after the capture of that capital. Aribi and the tribes of the Nabayati and Ḳedar again recognized Assyrian suzerainty. About 580 B.C. the Ḳedar are mentioned as having been subdued by Babylon .

Strenuous efforts had been made during the Assyrian period to restore order in Arabia, but as a whole this was an impossible task. The utmost that could be achieved, was the protection of the important trade routes and the p later (539 B.C.) Arab warriors helped King Cyrus II to take Babylonia (Xenophon, Cyropaedia, vii, 4, 16; v, 13).

When the Near East was annexed to the Achaemenid Empire, the Arabs again furnished camel troops to the Great King of Persia, e.g. to Xerxes (Herodotus, vii, 86), but sometimes the Arabs also joined the kings of Asia Minor in their struggle against Persia; for instance their king Aragdes (or Maragdes, Ḵh̲ārid̲j̲a?) was a confederate of Croesus¶ (Xenophon, Cyropaedia, ii, 1, 5). The "King of the Arabs" mentioned in Herodotus (iii, 4) may be a king of the Liḥyānites (the Laianitai of Agatharchides; the latter had occupied the Northern Ḥid̲j̲āz , i.e. the colony of the Minaeans known as Muṣrān ("border-land") in the land of Midian, with the centre of Agra-Hegra, between 500 and 300 B.C., and were followed by the Nabataeans .

When Alexander the Great had conquered the Achaemenid Empire, he also subdued Arabia according to Livy (xlv 9) and Pliny (Nat. Hist. xii, 62). The Arabs now had to supply clothes and arms to the Greek army , and they participated in military actions, e.g. in the defence of Gaza (Arrian, Anabasis, ii, 25, 4, Curtius Rufus, Memorabilia, iv, 6, 30) and in the battle of Raphia (217 B.C.) on the side of Antiochus III. Although the western part of Arabia was occupied by Ptolemy after the death of Alexander , the majority of the Arabs joined Antiochus (Polybius, v, 71); presumably these Arabs are the predecessors of the Nabataeans . Arab colonies, established at the foot of the Lebanon and in Syria, mainly served the traffic on the great commercial route Petra-Damascus-Mesopotamia (Pliny, Nat. Hist., vi, 142; Strabo, xvi, 749, 755, 756), as nomad Arabs (῎Αραβες Σκηνῖται) were also settled by Tigranes with this end in view (Plutarch, Lucullus, 21; Pliny, Nat. Hist., vi, 142). In the Mithridatian war Arabs fought along side the Romans, but in the Syrian war they harassed the Roman army under Pompey and were defeated by him. Arabs served with Cassius (53 B.C.) and Crassus against the Parthians. The Roman policy of winning over Arabs as confederates and auxiliaries against their own kindred in the Arabian-Syrian desert and against the Parthians was continued and extended by the Eastern Roman Emperors. The Arabian-Syrian border-land was under the rule of the G̲h̲assānids [q.v.] as phylarchs, as was the border-land of the Euphrates in Southern Babylonia ( al-Ḥīra ) which remained under the rule of the Lak̲h̲mids [q.v.] until 602 A.D.

In the meantime Arabs had even infiltrated in the 4th century A.D. into Southern Arabia apparently in connection with camel-breeding and traffic on the "incense" road. They are mentioned in the Sabaean inscriptions as Aʿrāb and form a notable part of the population, along with the ancestral sedentary population. Their importance is emphasised by the mention of these Aʿrāb in the title and style of the Sabaean ruler. But this political position did not prevent their kindred in North-West Arabia from entering into warlike disputes with the South Arabian kings. King Amr al-Kays b. ʿAmr besieged Nad̲j̲rān , which belonged to the king S̲h̲ammar Yurʿis̲h̲, and it may have been this Amr al-Kays who put an end to the prevailing influence of South Arabia in the region of ʿAṣīr and Southern Ḥid̲j̲āz .

At the beginning of the fourth century, the aforementioned Amr Ḳays b . ʿAmr, who succeeded in gaining power over the tribes of Asad and Nizār and called himself "king of all the Arabs", put a detachment of Arab cavalry at the disposal of the Romans. This fact is clearly stated in the Nabataean inscription of al-Namāra dated 328 A.D.

From the end of the fourth century A.D. for about a hundred years the princes of the family of Dad̲j̲āʿima, the leaders of the tribe of Banū Ṣāliḥ , were vassals of the Byzantine Empire on the Syrian border, and held territories there which were gradually yielded to the G̲h̲assānids in the second half of the fifth century A.D. Unfortunately we do not learn very much about them from Arabic sources. ¶

About the middle of the 4th century A.D., the tribe of Kinda [q.v.], which after a long struggle with Ḥaḍramūt, to which it was inferior, had to leave the Yaman , and migrated to the country of Maʿadd , where it settled at G̲h̲amr Ḏh̲ī Kinda in the south-western corner of Nad̲j̲d , two days journey from Makka . Although the leaders of Kinda , as kings of the tribes of Rabīʿa and Muḍar , may have possessed a certain influence on the Bedouin tribes in Nad̲j̲d from the time when they settled there, the real kingdom of Kinda , governing a coalition of Arabian tribes in close connection with the Ḥimyarite Power in the Yaman , actually begins with Ḥud̲j̲r Ākil al-Murār. Yamanī tradition says that he was made king of Maʿadd , when Tubbaʿibn Karib invaded al-ʿIrāḳ , but possibly the attacks, directed against Persia or its vassals in al-Ḥīra , were made by the Kindites supported by the Ḥimyarites. It is further said that Ḥud̲j̲r made military expeditions with the tribes of Rabīʿa to Baḥrayn and at the head of the Banū Bakr attacked the frontiers of the Lak̲h̲mids , depriving them of their possessions in the country of Bakr, so that Ḥud̲j̲r is called "King of the Arabs in Nad̲j̲d and of the border-lands of al-ʿIrāḳ". His dominion probably comprised most of Central Arabia including al-Yamāma , and he died after a long and successful reign; he was buried in Baṭn ʿĀḳil on the road between Makka and Baṣra south of the Wādī al-Rumma. After his death about 478 A.D., the tribe of Rabīʿa denied ʿAmr al-Maḳṣūr, son of Ḥud̲j̲r , the dominions of his father; we find the tribe of Rabīʿa now under the guidance of Kulayb Wāʾil , leader of the Banū Tag̲h̲lib , and at war with the Ḥimyarites, who supported ʿAmr b. Ḥud̲j̲r . Kulayb as well as ʿAmr were killed in these struggles about the last decade of the fifth century (c. 490 A.D.). With Ḥārit̲h̲ ibn ʿAmr the dynasty of Kinda attained its greatest power. He is known to the Byzantine historians as Arethas, chief of the Saracens , and concluded an alliance with the Romans, directed against Persia and the Lak̲h̲mids of al-Ḥīra . In the struggles and expeditions against the latter, the tribes of Bakr and Tag̲h̲lib played the most important rôle (about 503 A.D.).

At any rate Ḥārit̲h̲ succeeded in uniting the tribes of the Nad̲j̲d into a great kingdom and made invasions into Roman as well as Persian territory. The statement that Ḥārit̲h̲ subjugated Syria and the G̲h̲assānid kings may be an exaggeration. The peace of 502 A.D. put an end to the war against the Romans, and in the following year (503 A.D.) al-Ḥārit̲h̲'s troops attacked al-Ḥīra , doubtless with the consent and help of the Romans. Ḥārit̲h̲ became master of all the Arabs in al-ʿIrāḳ (503-506 A.D.), and the Lak̲h̲mid Mund̲h̲ir , who got no assistance at all from his suzerain, the Persian king Ḳubād̲h̲, submitted to Ḥārit̲h̲ and married his daughter Hind . However, the domination of the Lak̲h̲mid country was not complete; according to a South Arabian tradition, by an agreement between Ḳubād̲h̲ and Ḥārit̲h̲ , the Euphrates or the canal al-Ṣarā near the Tigris not far from Bag̲h̲dād was fixed as the northern boundary of al-Ḥārith's territory, and it is said, that, after King Anūs̲h̲irwān had restored Mund̲h̲ir to power in al-Ḥīra , Ḥārit̲h̲ kept what was on the other side of "the river of al-Sawād" until 527-28 A.D. So the Kindite interregnum in al-Ḥīra may have lasted some time between the years 525 to 528 A.D., when the Persian Empire was weakened by the Mazdakite movement . It seems, that Ḥārit̲h̲ for some period even ruled¶ over al-ʿIrāḳ as far as ʿUmān , possibly as a feofee of the Persian king Ḳubād̲h̲. After the fall of the Mazdakites Ḥārit̲h̲ had to flee; he lost all his property and 48 members of his family were put to death by Mund̲h̲ir . He nevertheless could again approach the Romans and was even appointed as a phylarch of the Arabs, on the side of East-Roman Empire. In 528 A.D., the date of his death, he is mentioned in this position by Byzantine sources. With his death the second climax of the Kindite power in Arabia came to an end. Ḥārit̲h̲ had divided his dominion, comprising all Nad̲j̲d , great parts of al-Ḥid̲j̲āz , Baḥrayn and al-Yamāma , between his sons, who had been placed as chiefs over the tribes of Maʿadd . His eldest son Ḥud̲j̲r , who had a certain supremacy over the whole kingdom of Kinda , was killed in a rebellion of the tribe of Asad . Between S̲h̲uraḥbīl and Salama, ruling the tribes of Rabīʿa and Tamīm and possessing the eastern half of the kingdom of Kinda , a discord arose concerning the division of power after their father's death, and S̲h̲uraḥbīl was killed in the battle of al-Kulāb (a well between al-Kūfa and Baṣra ) a few years after 530 A.D.; it is highly probable that this dissension was caused or nourished by the intrigues of Mund̲h̲ir , whom the Banū Tag̲h̲lib as well as the Bakr joined after the expulsion of the victorious Salama. Maʿdikarib, the chief of the Ḳays-ʿAylān, went mad, or fell in the battle of Uwāra, and the fifth son of Ḥud̲j̲r , ʿAbdallāh, who ruled over the Rabīʿa tribe of ʿAbd al-Ḳays , in Baḥrayn , in not mentioned further. So the kingdom of the family of Ḥud̲j̲r Ākil al-Murār broke down, and the Kinda , or considerable parts of them, migrated to Ḥaḍramūt, where they settled about 543 A.D. according to a Sabaean inscription at the dam of Mārib . Ḥud̲j̲r's son, the famous poet Imraʾ al-Ḳays , tried in vain to regain the power of his father with the help of the Byzantine Emperor, and died in Anḳara perhaps before the year 554 A.D. A cousin of Imraʾ al-Ḳays , Ḳays ibn Salama, chief of the Kinda and Maʿadd , is possibly identical with Kaisos (Κσος), who received from the Emperor the governorship of Palestine and defeated the Lak̲h̲mid Mund̲h̲ir b . al-Nuʿmān, who died in 554 A.D.

The disputes and struggles between the nomad tribes in Arabia are listed under the well known "Ayyām al-ʿArab", and an expedition to Ḵh̲aybar in 567 A.D. is referred to in the Arabic inscription of Ḥarrān (dated 568 A.D.). That there existed "kings" of individual tribes along with those mentioned here is proved by a Nabataean inscription found in Umm al-Ḏj̲imāl and dating from about 250 A.D., in which a king of Tanūk̲h̲ is mentioned.

(A. Grohmann*)

(ii) the expansion of the arabs: general, and the "fertile crescent"

If the expansion of the Arabs is regarded as a continuous process certain permanent features can be detected: the expansion consists usually in the emigration of large or small nomadic groups, rarely in that of groups with permanent habitations; it may be military, by means of service in foreign armies or in their own army which has set out for conquest; or through the founding of trading colonies. Apart from this last case, the extent of emigration depends partly on particular coincidences, partly on a recurrent, but incalculable, factor, the increase in the pressure of population in Arabia. This is brought about by the decline of cultivation (in South Arabia also of industry ) and of the caravan trade (in Islamic times also of the pilgrim traffic); there is a corresponding increase in the nomadic population. The expansion was preceded by the immigration into the central parts of the peninsula, which had been sparsely occupied by an earlier population. It was facilitated by the taming of the camel in the second (?) half of the second millennium B.C. Nor is it likely that the occupation of South Arabia took place earlier, to judge from the philological, ethnological and archeological evidence . The forerunners of these immigrants into South Arabia were presumably traders who followed the ancient trade routes into the land of incense and myrrh. A little later the Arabs begun to expand in the North, at first in the direction of Sinai and Transjordan . The evidence of the inscriptions shows that in 853 they were present in the north of the Syrian desert, shortly afterwards on both edges of the Fertile Crescent; they were camel-breeders, oasis-dwellers, traders. This formed the chief objective of the Arab expansion. It did not, however, remain the only one, as the emigration of the Sabaeans into Ethiopia (about 400?) shows. It depended on the strength of the various states of the Fertile Crescent whether this immigration could be canalised in the form of colonisation, and, on the borders, of semi-nomadic life, or whether it led to the flooding of the cultivated land by nomads. In the 1st century B.C. the nomads (Scenites) on the near side of the Euphrates crossed the border of the arable land as far as the line Apamaea-Thapsacus, while in the Ḏj̲azīra they roved as far as the border of the arable¶ land to the south of the Ḵh̲ābūr and the Sind̲j̲ār . We cannot here examine exceptional developments, like that of the trading state of the Nabataeans which expanded in the same century, in the north to the Ḥawrān , in the south to N.-W. Arabia.

The incorporation of the Syrian part of the Nabataean kingdom in 105 A.D., and the abandonment of the Roman sphere of interest in N.-W. Arabia some sixty years later, shook the security of these countries. It is, however, impossible to discern what were the consequences of the incursions of the "Saracens" in the west and of the Ṭayyiʾ settled in the central mountain ridges of North Arabia ( Ḏj̲abal ). Different is the case of the entry of two tribes into the steppe lying between the Lower Euphrates and the sandy desert, which was perhaps originated by Ardas̲h̲īr I, the first Sāsānid (d. 241). They were the Tanūk̲h̲ and Asad (2), who came from East Arabia; and they were followed by Nizār from Middle and Western Arabia. The Nizār , with the exception of Iyād , were absorbed by the population of the Euphrates frontiers; the Tanūk̲h̲ and the Asad , on the other hand, continued their wanderings, the Tanūk̲h̲ , for the most part, to Northern Syria and the Asad to the south of the Ḥawrān . Since the 4th century these countries saw also the arrival of tribes from West Arabia. In the meantime, the recession in the incense trade (from the 3rd century?) and its extinction (at the latest in the 5th century) had led to the bedouinisation of part of the population of South Arabia . Groups of such tribes, taking part in military expeditions of the Ḥimyārite kings, reached the district of Nad̲j̲rān and also Central Arabia (e.g. Kinda ). All through the 6th century we can observe an advance into the north, sped forward initially by the campaigns of the kings of Kinda; its path lay along the northerly ʿĀriḍ = Ṭuwayḳ to the steppe on the lower Euphrates (Bakr, Tamīm), from Bīs̲h̲a to the Wādī al-Ruma ( ʿĀmir ), from the country north of Medina in the direction of Palmyra ( Bahrāʾ , Kalb ). The Tag̲h̲lib , dwelling formerly on the lower Euphrates , moved upstream and settled at the beginning of Islam in the Ḏj̲azīra to the north of the Sind̲j̲ār .

The expansion at the beginning of the Islam came about in the first place through enlistment in the armies and auxiliary troops which were sent by Medina to the Euphrates , to Transjordania and to Southern Palestine and after that conquered al-ʿIrāḳ , Syria and al-Ḏj̲azīra; later through participation in the campaigns which led, across the Persian Gulf or from the garrison cities of Kūfa and Baṣra , to Iran , from Damascus to Egypt , North Africa and Spain. It occurred further through the displacement of tribes from Transjordania to Palestine (in the north ʿĀmila and Ḏj̲ud̲h̲ām , in the south Lak̲h̲m ); the emigration of parts of Balī and Ḏj̲uhayna from the Ḥid̲j̲āz to Egypt; through continuous infiltration of families and groups into the garrison towns and the Ḏj̲azīra; and through resettlement of the people of Kūfa and Baṣra in Ḵh̲urāsān . With the enrolment of 400 families of the Sulaym and other West Arabian Ḳaysites as colonists for Lower Egypt , followed spontaneously by three times their number, the first period of expansion in Islamic times ends. The curtain between the Fertile Crescent and Arabia falls again.

It took a considerable time before the loss which the population of Arabia incurred by the emigration during and after the campaigns of conquests was made good again. The first new movement led from¶ the Ḏj̲abal towards the north-east: before the middle of the 9th century the Asad (1) began to advance along the pilgrims' road of Kūfa , and Ṭayyiʾ followed close on their heels. In the second half of the 10th century, quarrels under the Buwayhids allowed the Asad to penetrate into the cultivated land; a part of them wandered on to Ḵh̲ūzistān , where already before Islam a small Arab island (Tamīm) had been formed. In the meanwhile the campaigns of the Ḳarmaṭians of East Arabia into ʿIrāḳ (311-25/923-37), Syria and Egypt (353-68/964-78/9), had driven new waves of migration to the north: Ḵh̲afād̲j̲a ( ʿUḳayl ) moved out of East Arabia into the steppe on the lower Euphrates , followed in the 11th century by Muntafiḳ (also of ʿUḳayl ). Their place in East Arabia was filled by tribes which immigrated from ʿUmān; part of these too later moved to ʿIrāḳ . Some Ṭayyiʾ settled in southern Transjordania, and subsequently acquired the overlordship over the older immigrants of the same tribe in Palestine. The stream of tribes from South Palestine to Egypt , which began in early Islamic times, began again in the middle of the 11th century (originated by orders of the government ), until in the late Middle Ages it was brought to a halt by a movement in the opposite direction. Since the end of the 12th century there is a trickle of Ḏj̲ud̲h̲ām from Northern Ḥid̲j̲āz over Sinai to Egypt and particularly to Transjordania, until in the 17th century this source dries up. They are followed by Balī. Finally since the end of the 15 century groups of the pariah tribe of Hutaym penetrate into the same districts from the territory east of Ḵh̲aybar . Meanwhile a new expansion had begun in the Ḏj̲abal . Around 1200 the G̲h̲aziyya ( Ṭayyiʾ ) appeared in the north between Transjordania and ʿIrāḳ , the Banu Lām (also of Ṭayyiʾ ) in the south between Medina and the Ḳasīm. Since the 15th century G̲h̲aziyya camped on the Euphrates , but did not cross it for good till around 1800. The Banū Lām penetrated at the end of the 15th century to the northern frontier of the Ḥid̲j̲āz , but were repelled by the Ottomans, and following their ancient route turned in the middle of the 16th century to the east, and on to the lower Tigris and Ḵh̲ūzistān .

The last great emigration , that of S̲h̲ammar and ʿAnaza , commenced in the same district. At the end of the 17th century the S̲h̲ammar came from the Ḏj̲abal to the frontier of ʿIrāḳ . ʿAnaza (whose territory had been till that time from Madāʾin Ṣāliḥ to the Ḳasīm) penetrated at the same time, accompanied by the Banū Ṣak̲h̲r , as far as Transjordania. In the 18th century ʿAnaza , coming from S.-W. and S.-E., occupied the Syrian desert. Into the midst of this movement burst the campaigns of the Wahhābīs. In the nineties the S̲h̲ammar-Ḏj̲arbā left their homeland occupied by the Wahhābīs and went to the Euphrates . At the beginning of 1802 they crossed it with the agreement of the government and soon pushed on into the Ḏj̲azīra up to the edge of the mountains of Asia Minor. Other parts of ʿAnaza reached the Syrian Desert together with the troops of the Wahhābīs or in the course of flight from their tax-collectors.

As the result of the progress of agriculture in North Arabia since 1911 and the exploitation of the oil resources in the last two decades, the expansion of the Arabs has ended for the moment.

Some features of the expansion must still be mentioned, which it was not possible to fit into this article: the settlement on the Iranian coast of the¶ Persian Gulf (which had pre-Islamic antecedents); the foundation of trading colonies on the coasts and the islands of the Indian Ocean from the early to the late Middle Ages: Malabar , Madagascar , East Africa (Peta-Kilwa, with antecedents in the ancient South Arabian period); the more recent colonial policy of ʿUmān; the continuous emigration from Ḥaḍramawt , which in the 19th century was principally, but not exclusively, directed towards Indonesia (mercenaries in Ḥaydarābād ); and infiltration into Upper Egypt across the Red Sea.

(W. Caskel)

(iii) the expansion of the arabs: iran in early islamic times

The Arab conquest of Iran brought a part of the Arab people to that country. There appear to be two separate developments in settlement. (1) The immigration from the opposite Arab coast to the south coast of Iran along the Persian Gulf. The Arabs also spread in a south-easterly direction along the coast from the mouth of the Euphrates and Tigris . Apparently Arab settlements could be found here already in pre-Islamic times (see A. Christensen: L'Iran sous les Sassanides 2, 87, 128). The number of Arabs increased considerably here in early Islamic times; there is, for example, explicit mention as settlers of the ʿAbd al-Ḳays from the coast of ʿUmān ( al-Balād̲h̲urī , 386, 392; al-Iṣṭak̲h̲rī , 142; Ibn al-At̲h̲īr ( Būlāḳ ), iii, 49). From then on Arab settlements remained along the coast and at some places inland (e.g. Māhān, in the district of Bardsīr, 985 A.D.: al-Maḳdisī, iii, 462) until at least the times of the Mongols (B. Spuler: Die Mongolen in Iran , 2Leipzig 1955, 142, 149 f., 164). It seems reasonable to suppose that there is a connection between those settlements and the ones of today, in view of the continued migration of Arabs across the Persian Gulf and from Baṣra . (2) There was a second influx of Arab settlers into Iran from Mesopotamia . In the 7th century Arab colonies were formed in several towns such as Kās̲h̲ān , Hamadān and Iṣfahān; Ḳumm became a predominantly Arab (and S̲h̲īʿite) town, and remained so for a considerable time ( al-Balād̲h̲urī , 314, 403, 410, 426; Nars̲h̲ak̲h̲ī (Schefer), 52; Ibn al-At̲h̲ir ( Būlāḳ ), v, 15; E. G. Browne, Account of a rare ms. hist. of Iṣfahān , Hertford 1901, 27 [offprint from JRAS , 1901]; B. Spuler: Iran [see Bibl.] 179). The number of Arab settlers in Ād̲h̲arbayd̲j̲ān ( al-Balād̲h̲urī , 328, 331; al-Ṭabarī, i, 2805 f.; Ibn Ḥawḳal 2, 353; al-Yaʿḳūbī , Taʾrīk̲h̲ , ii, 446; Aghānī 1, xi, 59) was apparently much smaller.

Ḵh̲urāsān , however, remained the main goal throughout all these migrations. The actual settlement was partly made by large groups: there are reports of 25,000 from Baṣra and an equal number from Kūfa , who arrived in 52/672; a further batch reached the country in 683. On the basis of this number of men capable of bearing arms (50,000) and in view of the strictness of recruiting, J. Wellhausen (cf. Bibl.) estimates the number of Arab settlers in the begining of the 8th century at 200,000. They did not live only in the towns—where in some cases quarters were put at their disposal after the conquest—but were scattered all over the country, as for example in the oasis of Marw, where they acquired possessions and adapted themselves to the dihḳānsʾ way of living. The geographical contours of Ḵh̲urāsān suited the Arabs very well: they could easily travel across the large plains and the steppes, although they were somewhat more awkward than the natives both at crossing rivers and in the mountains (cf. Barthold, Turkestan, 182). ¶

The main body of Arabs in Ḵh̲urāsān had come from Baṣra . Of the tribes settled there, the Ḳays (especially in the 8th century: al-Ṭabarī, ii 1929) were in the majority in the west, while the Tamīm and Bakr were mixed together in the east and in Sīstān; thus the outcome of inter-tribal feuds was varied. Ibn al-At̲h̲īr ( Būlāḳ v, 6) states their numbers for 715 as follows: Baṣrans 9,000, Bakr 7,000, Tamīm 10,000, ʿAbd al-Ḳays 4,000, Azd 10,000, Kūfans 7,000 (= 47,000 which tallies almost exactly with the above mentioned number for Kūfans and Baṣrans); in addition altogether 7,000 mawālī of these tribes. (In this list the people from Baṣra and from Kūfa must stand for elements from the two towns which could not be reckoned among the tribes mentioned). The tribal divisions valid in Baṣra were taken over into Ḵh̲urāsān . On the one side were the Rabīʿ (= Bakr and ʿAbd al-Ḳays ) and the Yamanite Azd (who had arrived later), and on the other the Tamīm and Ḳays (collectively known as "Muḍar"), who were very pround of their descent [cf. articles on these]. The bloody battle between these began in connexion with the great civil war for the Caliphate in 683; a static war raged outside Harāt for one year, 64-5/684-5 between Bakr and Tamīm (al-Ṭabarī, ii, 490-6), which eventually came to an end because of internal dissensions among the Tamīm. Inspite of the fact that a neutral Ḳurays̲h̲ite became governor in 74/693-4, fighting continued until 81/700 (al-Ṭabarī, ii, 859-62). The attitude of the governor often made the difference between victory and defeat, and his attitude, in turn, depended to a great extent on the party divisions in the west (Syria and Mesopotamia ). In 85-6/704-5, the ascendancy of the Azd and Rabīʿa was temporarily checked by a change of governors. Ḳutayba b. Muslim, the conqueror of Transoxania, who was not linked to either of the powerful groups by descent, tried to remain neutral. It was thanks to him that the Arabs had the chance of spreading to Samarḳand , Buk̲h̲ārʾā and Ḵh̲wārizm, often moving into specially cleared quarters ( al-Balād̲h̲urī , 410, 421 f.; al-Ṭabarī, ii, 156; Ibn al-At̲h̲īr ( Būlāḳ ), iii, 194; Nars̲h̲ak̲h̲ī , 52). After his death the Azd resumed power under Yazīd II , until the Tamīm took over in 720. The misrule of the latter and of the Ḳays brought Umayyad rule in Ḵh̲urāsān into such disrepute that even the open-minded governor Naṣr b. Sayyār could not find a way to settle the disputes of the opposing groups after 744. The ʿAbbāsid revolution, caused largely by the behaviour of the Arabs, passed them by. Its victory in 748-50 brought about new conditions for the Arabs in the east.

A few of the Arabs had, of course, entered into friendly relations with the Iranians soon after the conquest of Ḵh̲urāsān . Some of the marzbāns and dihḳāns had come quickly to terms with the Arab rule and the Arabs frequently took part in the cultural life of the Iranians (especially the celebrations of the nawrūz and the mihragān , as, similarly, they had also done in Egypt on the occasion of Coptic festivities). There were mixed marriages (mentioned expressly only where more prominent persons were concerned, yet even more likely to have taken place among the ordinary people) and the descendants of such unions in Iran were undoubtedly inclined to attach themselves to, and disappear among, the islamicised Iranians. In addition, there were cases of Arabs (as, for instance, Mūsā b. ʿAbd Allāh b . Ḵh̲āzim in Tirmid̲h̲ ) who quarrelled with the government and joined forces politically with the natives. Furthermore, since the time of ʿUmar II¶ 717-20, there was a growing religious consciousness among some Arabs (such as Ḥārit̲h̲ b. Surayd̲j̲ ) which demanded—with increasing insistance—equal treatment for the Iranian Muslims (cf. Wellhausen, Das arab. Reich, 280). Hence the many attempts to come to a reasonable solution of the question of the personal and land taxes where converted Iranians were concerned. In any case, one has the impression that the tribal feeling was more and more superseded by a new, predominantly religious, grouping from round about 720 onwards, when a new process of assimilation began which became important for the general feeling of pan-Arab unity. From this time onwards, political events can no longer be explained as deriving their main spring from tribal feuds.

Because of this, Umayyad politics, which had been built up on the tribal structure, were doomed, and the future belonged to the ʿAbbāsid movement (and also to that of the ʿAlids connected with the former in the beginning) which worked on a different basis. The collaboration between the Arabs, who often took a leading part in the ʿAbbāsid movement , on the hand, and the Iranians on the other, went smoothly—at least until the fall of the Umayyads (nor was there much friction on a national basis subsequently). Hence the victory of the years 746-50: at that time, however, the greater part of Arabs in Abū Muslim's army spoke Persian (al-Ṭabarī, iii, 51, 64 f.).

There were, however, Arabs, who took no part in this process of assimilation. The greater part of these were pushed out of Ḵh̲urāsān in the course of the ʿAbbāsid campaign. The remaining settlers, towards whom the Iranians showed no more animosity, were politically (i.e. as Arabs) of little importance. Tribal warfare now ceased completely, although some tribes are still mentioned in the 10th century (cf. the authorities quoted below). Assimilation continued, however, without interruption so that many Arabs eventually merged completely with the Iranians: more quickly, certainly, where they lived in isolation on their estates (as for instance in the oasis of Marw). One must also take into account a further distribution of the Arab element all over the country during the ʿAbbasid period, and further immigration from the west. Consequently there were places which had a partly Arab population as late as the 11th and 12th century, though the gradual decrease in their numbers is already recognisable in the 10th century. Detailed statements regarding this are rather rare: compare for Iṣfahān : al-Yaʿḳūbī , Buldān, 274, for various places in Ḵh̲urāsān , ibid., 294; al-Iṣṭak̲h̲rī 322/323, Ibn Ḥawḳal 2, 499; al-Maḳdisī, 292, 303; for Kās̲h̲ān : Ḥudūd al-ʿĀlam , 133, and ibid. 104, 108, 216 ( Ḏj̲ūzd̲j̲ān ); al-Ḏj̲āḥiẓ , Tria opuscula, ( van Vloten), 40; Ag̲h̲ānī 1, xiv, 102, xvii, 69; Ḏj̲uwaynī , ii, 46, (read manzilgāh-i ʿArab); S. A. Volin, K istorii sredneaziatskikh arabov, (in the Trudy vtoroy sessii assotsiatsii arabistov, (Moscow and Leningrad 1941), 124; B. Spuler, Iran , 250. The family histories in Ibn al-Balk̲h̲ī, Fars-nāma, xix f. = 116 f., and Ḳummī, Taʾrīk̲h̲-i Ḳumm (Tihrānī), 266-305 ( family of As̲h̲ʿarī ) are most illuminating for the gradual assimilation of Arab families of civil servants into the Persian people.

(B. Spuler)

appendix: arabs in central asia at the present day

The origin of the Arabs living at the present day in Central Asia, and apparently also in Afg̲h̲ān Turkistān (where they speak Persian: The Imperial Gazeteer of India , V, Oxford 1908, 68; without definite mention of places) can not (or not yet) be fixed with certainty. According to their own tradition, they were brought there by Tīmūr , and they mention the Andk̲h̲uy [q.v.] district in Afg̲h̲ānistān and the nearby Aḳča (in the province of Mazār-i S̲h̲arīf ) as the site of their original settlement, and Ḳars̲h̲ī, Buk̲h̲ārā and Ḥiṣār as places through which they had passed. There is, however, no mention of Tīmūr re-settling Arabs, in the sources concerning his life, nor can his son-in-law, Mīr Ḥaydar , who is frequently mentioned in the oral tradition, be identified. On the other hand there is proof that inhabitants of Marw were transplanted to Buk̲h̲ārā , and those of Balk̲h̲ , S̲h̲aburg̲h̲ān and Andk̲h̲uy into the Zarafs̲h̲ān valley in the year 1513 ( ʿUbayd Allāh , Zubdat al-Āt̲h̲ār , in the Zap. Vostočnago Otděleniya, XV, 202 f.). We know, furthermore, that migration of "Arabs" was still possible in the first half of the 16th century between (Persian) ʿIrāk on the one side, and the areas of Buk̲h̲ārā , Samarḳand and the valley of the Kas̲h̲ka Daryā on the other ( ʿAbd Allāh b . Muḥammad al-Marwarīd: Tarassul, quoted by Volin 121-3; cf. also H. R. Roemer, Staatsschreiben der Timuridenzeit, Wiesbaden 1952, 94 f., 177, with facsimile 38b-39a [without the factual part of the document]).

Thus it appears that the Arabs living in Central Asia today are not the immediate descendants of the immigrants of early Islamic times [see above iii], although one must allow for the possibility of an association with these settlers, who had already been Iranised in the 11th and 12th centuries. In the 16th century, the Central Asian Arabs were under a mīr hazār who collected taxes for the government; they were generally known as nomads (aʿrāb) (in addition to the above mentioned document cf. also an ins̲h̲ā-collection of Samarḳand of ca. 1530, published by Volin 117-20). In the 17th and 18th centuries there is no information concerning these Arabs, but there is mention of them in the beginning of the 19th century, especially in various travel reports (quoted by Volin). Here we must distinguish two concepts:

(1) A close group marked by strict endogamy, who are, however, in their physical appearance hardly different from their Iranian neighbours; they call themselves "Arabs" but accepted the language of the country they live in. There is a group of Tād̲j̲īk and a group of Uzbek-speaking "Arabs' in the Samarḳand area. Travellers mention similar groups of "Arabs" in Turkmenistān, Ḵh̲īwa , Farg̲h̲āna and mountain Tād̲j̲īkistān . In the 19th century their number was assessed at between 50 and 60,000; Vinnikov (see Bibl.), 9, sticks to these numbers (in spite of the result of the census) in 1926. In the 19th century these "Arabs" were still under a mīr hazār, but by this time he no longer exercised any fiscal function. The figure mentioned in a Soviet census of 1926 is 28,978, that of 1939, 21,793. According to this it would appear that these groups of "Arabs" who already spoke the language of their area, were absorbed more and more into their Uzbek or Tād̲j̲īk surroundings. Their economic situation is also like that of their neighbours. As¶ survivals of the matriarchal system, however, we still find the institution of the "avunculate" (a special connection between the nephew and his maternal uncle and the marriage of first cousins), in which at least one third of these "Arabs" lived before the revolution. (Compare M. O. Kosven, Avunkulat in Sovetskaya Etnografiya, 1948, no. i).

(2) From these self-styled "Arabs" (obviously in a historical sense), we must distinguish groups which still speak Arabic . According to the above mentioned documents, it appears that this distinction goes back as far as the 16th century. This would mean that the settlement of these Arabs must have taken place some generations earlier, otherwise there could have been (in the case of nomads) no possibility of a partial linguistic assimilation. The Soviet census of 1926 gives the figure 4,655 for these Arabs, who can be divided into the dialectally different tribes of Saʿnōnī and Saʿbōnī. They live largely in Uzbekistān (2,170) and in Tād̲j̲īkistān (2,274). In 1939, Arab speaking inhabitants of Uzbekistan numbered about 1,750. It would appear that the Russian census of 1897, mentioning 1696 Arabs, had only the Arab speaking ones in mind; yet some doubt about this figure must remain, in view of the numbers mentioned in later years. Apparently this group, too, is in the process of being assimilated by its surroundings.

The language of these Arabs has developed from a Mesopotamian dialect but has (like Maltese) developed into an independent branch of Arabic , and has split in two. The Central Asian Arabic language developed p and č even in pure Arabic words, on the other hand it lost the th, dh and partly the hamza . F often disappeared, and ḳ often became g; the ā usually became å, the u in the personal suffix uh (u): ü. Stress vacillates; assimilation, inversion, and elision are frequent. The 2nd and 3rd person fem. pl. retain their endings (as in the bedouin dialects). One of the two dialects developed the prefix mi- in the imperfect tense (would this correspond to Iranian, or to Syrian and Egyptian Arabic?). A durativus praesentis developed under the influence of Turkish. As in the Caucasian languages (e.g. Old Georgian), the direct object is taken up again by a personal suffix in the verb (cf. also the Syrian development). "Kāna" is often used as an auxiliary verb (originally with a plu-perfect meaning). The infinitive ends regularly in either -aḥān or -ān. The nūnation of the nouns is almost completely absent; plurals end in īn/-āt (this also frequently in the case of masculine nouns), while broken plurals are rare. Arabic numerals have been replaced by Tād̲j̲īk ones almost completely. Status Constructus is retained, but word combinations of the Indo-Germanic type are frequent (Ḥaṭab mibīh, "wood-seller"). Usual word order: subject, object, predicate. Vocabulary largely Semitic, leaning to ʿIrāḳī and occasionally to peninsular Arabic .

(B. Spuler)

(iv) expansion of the arabs in egypt

At the end of the year 18/639, an Arab army appeared on the Syro-Egyptian frontier and commenced the conquest of Egypt . On 20 Rabīʿ II 20/9 April 641, a treaty was signed which wrested Egyptian territory or, more precisely the autochthonous population, from Byzantine domination. Alexandria still held out, and only surrendered eighteen months later. Viewed as a whole, the operations give the impression of an advance carried out no doubt with enthusiasm, but also of a carefully planned offensive. Certain papyri of this period assume particular importance. We possess requisition orders for the billeting and provisioning of Arab troops, and we learn that the expenses incurred by the villages were remitted from the taxes for the following year. From information supplied by the same documents, we see advancing into the country a well-equipped army : armoured cavalry and infantry, accompanied by a flotilla for operations in Upper Egypt . Teams of blacksmiths and armourers were formed for the repair of weapons. This information is based on Greek texts, some of which are indeed accompanied by an Arabic translation, but if the initiation of similar measures was the duty of the Coptic civil administrators, it is a fact that the Arab military leaders were fully aware of them. All this indicates training and discipline, and we may suppose that Bedouin elements did not form the major part of the Arab army . ʿAmr b. ʿĀṣ relied in the main on a first contingent of Yemenite origin, nearly all from the ʿAkk tribe, and it is apparent from the names of the districts of Fusṭāṭ that the majority of the groups were Yemenite. On the other hand, contingents of the Ḏj̲ud̲h̲ām and Lak̲h̲m tribes, who had formed part of the population of the G̲h̲assānid Kingdom and had remained neutral at the battle of the Yarmūk , had joined the army of Egypt . The largest figure recorded of the numbers of the Arab warriors is 15,000 men; this seems to be a maximum figure, but not an impossible one.

After the conquest the Arabs remained in their tribal groups: in this connexion, the names of the districts of Fuṣṭāṭ are again revealing. It may be questioned whether, in the beginning, the Arabs thought of anything but exploitation of the country by the military, who formed a de facto aristocracy which did not admit to its ranks any native of the country or mix with the inhabitants since it was forbidden to acquire land. The army of occupation was distributed between Fuṣṭāṭ, Alexandria , and various posts scattered along the Mediterranean coast, on the desert frontiers of the Delta, and on the Nubian borders. We lack any critical basis on which to form an estimate of the numbers of these garrisons, which were heavily reinforced, since in 43/663 12,000 men were needed in Alexandria alone. With a view to increasing their cohesion, these elements were organised in tribes. The members of each tribe were divided into sections of seven or ten,¶ under the control of a syndic, who received their pay, and also administered orphans' pensions under the supervision of the ḳāḍī . Every morning an official visited the tribes and registered new births.

In 109/727, the Comptroller of Finance in Egypt installed an important part of the Ḳays tribe in the region of Bilbais: the figure 3,000, which we are given, seems to include women and children. These Ḳaysites who, as camel-drivers, participated in the traffic on the Fuṣṭāṭ-Ḳulzum route, were probably liable to military service, since they were registered on the pay-rolls. These reinforcements had been to some extent necessitated by the first revolt of the Copts , which occurred in 107-725. When the Christian historian of the Alexandrian patriarchate is describing this, he writes "One tribe was situated in the eastern desert of Egypt , between Bilbais and Ḳulzum on the coast; these were Muslims, who were known as Arabs". This mode of expression seems to postulate that the indigenous Muslims, doubtless a minority of the whole population, were at that time more numerous than the Arabs.

These Arabs preserved for more than two centuries the memory of their tribe of origin, and in the majority of the funeral steles, in the cemeteries at Aswān and Fuṣṭāṭ, the name of the deceased is habitually followed by the ethnic appellation indicating the tribe. It was the Arab title of nobility, and Coptic converts were, in the beginning, second-class Muslims. Some of the latter aspired further, and a judicial scandal which took place in 194-5/810-2 proves that the Arab tribes were still strong enough to appeal to Bag̲h̲dād against the judgement of a ḳāḍī of dubious integrity which conferred on Copts the status of pure-bred Arabs. We observe that in the course of the 3rd/9th century surnames relating to tribes give way gradually to surnames of geographical significance; here, too the funeral steles are documents of the greatest value, and furnish us with toponymic surnames.

The Muslims of Fusṭāṭ , at the beginning of the 3rd/9th century, must have been mainly autochthonous elements, installed in all types of sedentary employment, in government service or in trade; the Arabs, occupied in suppressing revolts in the Delta in the course of the preceding century, were then struck off the military rolls as a result of the influx of Ḵh̲urāsānīs, and later of Turks , and had probably resumed in the country side the principal occupation of their ancestors, the raising of live-stock. At all events, from then on they are not mentioned in the towns. Descendants of former soldiers, moreover, acquired land: we find the proof of this in the fact that the government claimed from them the k̲h̲arād̲j̲ , or land tax. They thus became mingled with the indigenous population, which, at the beginning of the 3rd/9th century, was mainly Muslim; on the other hand, the Arabic language was used to an increasing extent by the Copts . The majority of the army , of Turkish stock, could not have made any distinction between the truly autochthonous elements and the descendants of Arab immigrants.

Finally, in 219/834, groups of the Lak̲h̲m and Ḏj̲ud̲h̲ām tribes rebelled in the Delta: they were easily dispersed, and no further mention is made of their rights. The Arabs re-appear, even frequently, in the history of Egypt : they remained organised in tribes, some of which retained their nomad habits. They were mobilised as reserve troops in times of crisis, for example at the time of the landing by the Crusaders at Damietta . Later governments were obliged periodically to exercise their authority against¶ them, either to collect taxes, or to suppress banditry. In general, these interventions were bloody affairs, and were virtually punitive expeditions.

The most significant events were set in train by the temporary migration, in the 5th/11th century, of the Banū Hilāl and the Banū Sulaym before their destructive onslaught on North Africa. It should not be forgotten that a group of Bedouin from the Arabian Peninsula tried to resist the advance of French troops in Upper Egypt in 1799.

Recent censuses have been vague in the extreme: it is estimated that the Bedouin scattered among the deserts of Egypt number about 50,000.

(G. Wiet)

(v) expansion of the arabs in north africa

It is extremely difficult to enumerate the Arab elements which, from the year 27/647 onwards, entered North Africa. We can only accept with the usual reservations the first number of 20,000, representing the fighting men from the Ḥid̲j̲āz , furnished by the tribes and grouped round their chiefs, reinforced by contingents taken from the army of Egypt . The first expeditions were nothing more than long-distance raids, without any intention of settling in the country. This ambition appears with ʿUḳba b. Nāfiʿ , who founded al-Ḳayrawān [q.v.] in 50/670. The death of this chief and the occupation of al-Ḳayrawān by the Berbers led to the despatch of fresh contingents. From then on, every serious failure on the part of the invaders, every Berber rising, every new phase in the arduous task of conquest occasioned the arrival of reinforcements. Under the Umayyads , elements derived from the d̲j̲und , detached from the Syrian garrisons, and constituting regiments which already had an individual character, took the place of the fighting men recruited in Arabia. Under the ʿAbbāsids , the Ḵh̲urāsān militia joined forces with the Syrians, or relieved them. All these elements, living in groups as in the East, were distributed among the towns of the conquered territory. As is well known, their haughtiness as conquerors, their demands and their lack of discipline were a source of the gravest embarrassment to the governors of Ifrīḳiya , and the Ag̲h̲labid amirs, obliged to subdue them with great bloodshed, found them employment in Sicily.

Along with the fighting men intended to effect the first occupation of the country, the Arab world sent civilian elements. Apart from the governors and their entourage, kinsmen and clients, there were men of a religious character, who, from the time of the caliphate of ʿUmar b. ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz (99-101/717-20), undertook the methodical conversion of the Berbers . There were also merchants hoping to prosper in fresh territory reputedly rich in resources.

These Arab immigrants constituted exclusively urban elements. The towns, where they formed a considerable proportion of the population, were centres of arabisation. By virtue of the prestige enjoyed by the conquerors, through the education given in the Ḳurʾānic schools and the mosques, and through economic relations and mutual contact in¶ the markets, the Arabic language spread simultaneously with Islam in the cities and their environs. Al-Ḳayrawān played an important part in this process, but the other garrisons of Ifrīḳiya and its western marches were also able to spread their influence over a limited area.

The Arab immigration of which the Hilāli invasion was the first phase was very different from the Muslim conquest and its consequences, both as regards those who took part in it and their role in the history of Barbary. The initial cause of this disaster was as follows:—in the middle of the 5th/11th century, the amir al-Muʿizz of the Banū Zīrī [see zīrids ] branch of the Ṣanhād̲j̲a , which governed Ifrīḳiya in the name of the Fātimid caliph al-Mustanṣir, broke with his suzerain in Cairo , and the latter, on the advice of his minister al-Yāzūrī, despatched against the rebel kingdom the Arab nomads then encamped east of the Nile, recognising in advance their title to any towns and rural districts which they could conquer.

The Banū Hilāl [see hilāl ], who formed the first wave of this "westward movement" (tag̲h̲rīb), and also the Banū Sulaym , who came on the scene later, were connected through their common ancestor Manṣūr b . Ḳays with the powerful line of Muḍar . Both had previously dwelt in Nad̲j̲d , and groups of the two families continued to live there. Brought late within the pale of Islam , they had migrated in considerable numbers to Upper Mesopotamia and the Syrian desert. Their independent nature revealed itself immediately after the death of the Prophet. The Umayyads , and the ʿAbbāsids even more, had to punish their plundering activities conducted in particular at the expense of Meccan pilgrims. In the 4th/10th century they took part in the Carmathian revolt. The Fāṭimid caliph al-ʿAzīz crushed the movement (368/978) and forced the Arabs who had supported it to transfer themselves to Upper Egypt . It was from there that they set out to conquer Ifrīḳiya .

At the moment when their first bands, which could have numbered barely a million, reached the Zīrid kingdom of al-Ḳayrawān and caused its downfall, the most powerful of the Banū Hilāl were the Riyāḥ , who occupied the plains of Tunisia . Further east, the kingdom of the Ḥammādids [q.v.] and the Zāb [q.v.] received the At̲h̲bed̲j̲. This Arab expansion, whose limits in the 6th/12th century are described by Idrīsī, caused the exodus of Ḥammādids from the Ḳalʿa to al-Bijāya and drove the Zanāta nomads towards the plains of Oran .

The arrival of fresh bands led subsequently to an extension of the territory and to alterations in the distribution of the Arabs. The most important of these waves of immigrants was, starting from the end of the 12th century, that of the Banū Sulaym , who came from Tripolitania. At first allied to the Armenian adventurer Ḳaraḳūs̲h̲, then to the Banū G̲h̲āniya who attempted to revive Almoravid power, they placed themselves at the service of the Ḥafṣids , the Almohad governors of Ifrīḳiya , who assured the fortunes of this great tribe. Thus Ifrīḳiya , the first domain of the Banū Hilāl , remained with the Sulaym , the region where the Arabs were the most numerous and most powerful. But no part of North Africa escaped what was considered by Ibn Ḵh̲aldūn to be an irreparable disaster. The quest by new arrivals for lands as yet unoccupied and for sedentary populations to exploit, the repulse of the weak by the strong, the advance of certain tribes, such as the Maʿḳil of Southern Morocco, from the western boundaries of the desert, were the quasi-normal causes of their "westward movement". To these must¶ be added the mass transfers effected by the Mag̲h̲ribī rulers within their own

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Title Commenter Date Thread
1Does Muslims and Christains worship the same God [152 words]MARKFeb 11, 2015 20:37221013
Worship to the true God of Israel [134 words]MARKFeb 11, 2015 20:01221012
is allah god? [73 words]james ;Oct 31, 2015 15:42221012
Uncomfortable logic... [142 words]
w/response from Daniel Pipes
donevanDec 19, 2014 21:35219860
1the Threat to Catholicism and Christianity from Islam and its Muslim followers, particularly in Europe [196 words]Brian MurphyMay 3, 2014 22:59214701
Ecumenism and the decline of the Catholic Church. [87 words]donevanJan 6, 2015 21:18214701
Allah/Jehovah same [183 words]james ;Oct 31, 2015 15:20214701
8The word Allah is a loan word from Syriac! It is not an Arabic word! [313 words]dhimmi no moreJan 4, 2014 08:24212471
5The word Allah is a loan word from Syriac! It is not an Arabic word! part two [780 words]dhimmi no moreJan 12, 2014 13:18212471
2Allah is Arabic [142 words]SimhaMay 30, 2014 04:41212471
2Let me guess you do not know any Arabic or Syriac right? And half knowledge is dangerous [770 words]dhimmi no moreJun 1, 2014 10:02212471
1Syriac in the Qur'an [655 words]dhimmi no moreJun 1, 2014 11:55212471
2Learn to read your Islamic sources in Arabic! [731 words]dhimmi no moreJun 2, 2014 11:34212471
2Here one of your Islamic sources that tell us that the word Allah is a loan word from Syriac [209 words]dhimmi no moreJun 4, 2014 10:55212471
1al-Razi and the etymology of the word Allah [102 words]dhimmi no moreJun 5, 2014 13:48212471
1Here is what Lisan al-Arb dictionary tells us about the etymology of the word Allah [617 words]dhimmi no moreJun 7, 2014 08:30212471
1Revisiting al-Halabi and the word Allah is not an Arabic word and it is a loan word from Syriac [161 words]dhimmi no moreJun 7, 2014 08:43212471
a bit of history for u [254 words]CKJun 28, 2014 09:02212471
1But the word Allah is not an Arabic word and even Sheikh al-Azhar agrees [942 words]dhimmi no moreAug 28, 2014 20:13212471
Allah is not a Name [138 words]YusufSep 16, 2015 02:48212471
1Our dear Yusuf needs to learn Arabic or stick to Urdu [357 words]dhimmi no moreSep 18, 2015 12:31212471
Allah/Jehovah have no conflict [123 words]james ;Oct 31, 2015 15:29212471
1Tell Muslims that Allah is a loan word from Syriac they tell you "Read Qur'an" [215 words]dhimmi no moreNov 7, 2015 08:56212471
4Is Allah same as God? The irony of monotheistic religions! [193 words]PrashantMay 23, 2012 02:09195800
2Belief in God [75 words]sevillaMay 20, 2012 07:20195707
1Historical context [71 words]saraMay 20, 2012 07:20195706
8Christian vs Islam [242 words]Rightly Guided JoeFeb 17, 2012 19:20193434
2My God is better than your God - GROW UP! [64 words]Baz ALSep 7, 2012 10:01193434
2your idea is wrong [78 words]elahaOct 3, 2013 14:16193434
1Allah is not the same [54 words]danielFeb 16, 2012 10:55193407
4The "god" of muslims is originally [64 words]Maximilian TeuschFeb 19, 2012 03:21193407
what do you suggest that we do? [18 words]BazSep 7, 2012 13:50193407
3Another victim of Arabian imperialism and Islam [427 words]dhimmi no moreSep 8, 2012 06:28193407
3Another victim of Arabian imperialism and Islam [425 words]dhimmi no moreSep 22, 2012 05:35193407
its not your fault to say that .. [35 words]elahaOct 3, 2013 14:28193407
2Wannabe Arabs from Turkey [179 words]dhimmi no moreOct 4, 2013 07:07193407
You're misleading people ... [177 words]Peter LatinMay 10, 2014 10:51193407
His real name is قثم بن عبد اللات [271 words]dhimmi no moreJul 5, 2014 18:32193407
1That's exactly WHAT I've been saying!!!!! [290 words]OliverSep 1, 2010 10:10177546
1Not rocket science! [97 words]Mc KayMar 3, 2012 03:25177546
1YHVH [47 words]OliverMar 4, 2012 15:16177546
3Allah is not God [185 words]UlrikFeb 3, 2010 09:28168363
5The Name of Allah prior to Islam [671 words]Albert GabranJan 29, 2011 12:47168363
2Malays should not follow wahabis [108 words]MuslimkushJan 17, 2010 06:00167431
Everyone is a prophet [242 words]LadyJan 20, 2010 10:42167431
5Why the Ecumenical Movement Could Never be Consummated with Islam. [695 words]M. ToveyJan 14, 2010 18:18167343
Only one God [43 words]b soetoroJan 17, 2010 16:59167343
6Yeshua HaMashiach Quoted the Sh'ma in a Way Only He Could [155 words]M. ToveyJan 19, 2010 11:06167343
3jesus allaha siva all are the words-its not a human being its universe of all [57 words]solarajacAug 9, 2010 09:46167343
I'm OK - You're OK ... up to a point [162 words]OliverSep 2, 2010 13:18167343
We are ALL atheists! [139 words]OttoFeb 20, 2012 06:42167343
Sorry, Even the Adversary Knows There is a God - That's What the Cross Was All About [505 words]M. ToveyFeb 23, 2012 19:04167343
good for you, but... [234 words]OttoFeb 24, 2012 21:50167343
Good for Me - thank you- But Why not You Again? [718 words]M. ToveyFeb 27, 2012 12:19167343
1My advocate is final judge lord [8 words]solarajacFeb 10, 2019 18:47167343
1Confusing to Muslims? [33 words]JoshuaJan 13, 2010 16:01167301
Allah IS for Muslims - YHWH IS for Jews / Christians [110 words]OliverFeb 7, 2010 12:12167301
2Irony of monotheism [83 words]Kurt BaskingJan 12, 2010 04:10167221
Proving Identity: Allah is not Yahweh [126 words]Mike RamirezJan 13, 2010 16:48167221
Sanity needs to prevail [82 words]Bernard BairdJan 15, 2010 06:49167221
My people perish for lack of knowledge (of Me) - YHWH [133 words]OliverFeb 7, 2010 12:40167221
4Allah is God, Muhammad and Yesus were prophet [12 words]bary soetoroJan 11, 2010 17:54167192
If This were True, Then the Hebrew Holy Bible Would Have Said So [176 words]M. ToveyJan 13, 2010 13:20167192
Remember Christians Call Jesus Son Of God [16 words]AnneMJan 15, 2010 07:18167192
Yesus was prophet [31 words]bary soetoroJan 15, 2010 23:31167192
Hi bary soetoro [77 words]UgriJan 16, 2010 02:32167192
4Our dear Bary and gem time big time [87 words]dhimmi no moreJan 16, 2010 08:25167192
Yesus was Prophet [33 words]b soetoroJan 16, 2010 23:51167192
Ugri [36 words]b soetoroJan 17, 2010 01:14167192
The Da Vinci Code [81 words]UgriJan 18, 2010 14:04167192
Yeshua HaMashiach is a Prophet at a Minimum - But One Must Read His Own Words To Know Who He Really IS [139 words]M. ToveyJan 19, 2010 10:53167192
2Allah for animists [91 words]MimkushJan 22, 2010 12:18167192
Islam is Universal [91 words]b soetoroJan 23, 2010 04:27167192
5The Qur'an says that islam is really the religion of the Arabs only and you ain't no Arab our dear bary [86 words]dhimmi no moreJan 23, 2010 17:27167192
2come back to civilization [109 words]MuslimkushJan 24, 2010 15:06167192
1Islam for arabs and their descendants only [79 words]MuslimkushJan 24, 2010 15:33167192
you dont understand arabic [61 words]b soetoroJan 24, 2010 19:19167192
1Who do you say is 'I am?' [79 words]AnnaJan 25, 2010 18:32167192
6But our dear Bary the Qur'an says in Arabic a language that you cannot speak read or write that isalm is really the religion of the Hijazi Arabs only [708 words]dhimmi no moreJan 27, 2010 07:17167192
Son of God - Son of Man - Lord - Master - Teacher - Prophet - Priest - King [47 words]OliverFeb 7, 2010 16:58167192
1There is no Allah-Only God. [153 words]N . TempleFeb 8, 2010 15:40167192
is Allah God? [94 words]Abdullah RamlaApr 1, 2009 05:05153084
1Allah - defined ... [41 words]OliverJun 18, 2009 21:37153084
2No, no [212 words]JosueJul 10, 2009 19:19153084
Allah is God [95 words]BinkDec 14, 2009 23:50153084
Dear Oliver [320 words]moJan 9, 2010 06:49153084
No Concordance of Quran Found in the Hebrew Holy Bible [534 words]M. ToveyJan 11, 2010 16:07153084
Defining the god-concept [239 words]G.VishvasJan 11, 2010 18:29153084
1Only Almighty God Can Define Who HE Is. [226 words]M. ToveyJan 13, 2010 19:39153084
1absurd logic ! [105 words]PremJan 14, 2010 12:21153084
about belief and non-belief [182 words]G.VishvasJan 17, 2010 04:42153084
1How Does Almighty God Deal with Non-Believers? Out of His Love. [621 words]M. ToveyJan 19, 2010 11:40153084
1Thanks for the care Tovey [92 words]G.VishvasJan 24, 2010 20:30153084
Almighty God Provides the Love (Caring) for the Salvation and Peace of Each Believer [562 words]M. ToveyJan 26, 2010 15:41153084
you make many assertions [55 words]G.VishvasJan 27, 2010 17:16153084
Almighty God was, IS, and Is Forever - Not an Assertion - Fact [231 words]M. ToveyJan 28, 2010 10:52153084
about human justice [61 words]G.VishvasJan 29, 2010 18:22153084
Distinguishing the Justice of Almighty God from human justice [85 words]M. ToveyFeb 1, 2010 10:33153084
1about flattering god [172 words]G.VishvasFeb 1, 2010 21:39153084
1Job Has It Right About Almighty God [430 words]M. ToveyFeb 2, 2010 12:19153084
uhhh ... [366 words]OliverFeb 4, 2010 21:20153084
An Easy Message For Salvation [313 words]Tamara Beryl LathamMar 8, 2010 17:18153084
1Abu Talib dont believe in Islam [91 words]IkhabiAug 30, 2010 14:18153084
and what was the fate of ... [17 words]OliverSep 1, 2010 09:54153084
Allah is not the Christian God. [261 words]LynnMar 16, 2009 18:53152373
1Allah God [297 words]moJun 17, 2009 16:41152373
The Alpha and the Omega [229 words]LynnJun 30, 2009 09:21152373
God loves everyone – even you! [693 words]OliverJul 2, 2009 13:00152373
Allah and God? Why Not? [170 words]NATHANOct 30, 2009 03:59152373
So be it. [158 words]LynnNov 5, 2009 15:53152373
esau? [3 words]JosueJan 1, 2010 18:16152373
Indeed: What of Esau? [859 words]M. ToveyJan 13, 2010 12:59152373
1A solid reason why Allah is NOT God [42 words]Alex M.Mar 16, 2009 14:10152366
1Proof that Jesus is the Son of God and that Christianity is right [92 words]True servant of GodMar 17, 2009 04:11152366
3Allah means God, Lord [233 words]sabinaMar 17, 2009 08:23152366
2Does anyone understand the Trinity? [530 words]FINIOUSAug 5, 2009 00:57152366
A Study of the word Allah [20 words]BazAug 23, 2009 04:51152366
4The word Allah [984 words]dhimmi no moreSep 7, 2009 17:15152366
4Our dear Sabrina and his poor Muslim education and the word Allah [954 words]dhimmi no moreSep 13, 2009 10:10152366
1Triune Nature of Almighty God [1917 words]M. ToveyJan 27, 2010 15:49152366
The word Allah [11 words]BazJun 27, 2017 20:43152366
1JHWH vs. Allah, a difference between day and night ! [289 words]ben kok (jewish christian pastor)Mar 16, 2009 14:10152365
1Pastor of Shame [184 words]RUTellingThe TruthAug 25, 2009 06:12152365
2There is No Shame in Telling the Truth [363 words]M. ToveyJan 15, 2010 16:10152365
Is Allah God or Is God Allah or all of them part of Something, a concept larger than these? [198 words]V. V. S.SarmaMar 10, 2009 12:59152035
1YHWH is the 'one true God' [155 words]OliverJul 2, 2009 12:43152035
4iIN THE NAME OF ALLAHA ...ALLAHA MEANS [2066 words]MustaqJan 22, 2010 00:31152035
Many Say Christians & Muslims Worship The Same God --- Not So [114 words]AthanMar 8, 2009 07:47151850
Who is Allah? [613 words]Lactantius JrMar 7, 2009 05:42151805
I don't understand why Christians ever use the word Allah, anywhere, for Yahweh/God the Father [95 words]Charles MartelMar 6, 2009 11:16151759
'it was only in jest' [672 words]OliverJul 1, 2009 12:35151759
What is God? [43 words]JosueJan 1, 2010 18:08151759
try this [108 words]OliverFeb 4, 2010 21:49151759
Linguistics vs. Faith. [87 words]ChaxFeb 18, 2016 00:03151759
1There is no Allah but only the Prophet [343 words]B.N.GururajMar 5, 2009 22:27151730
In Spite of the Gods [508 words]FINIOUSJul 29, 2009 23:15151730
1This controversy amuses me [323 words]Sudeep PathakFeb 17, 2009 02:06150624
I KNOW in Whom I believe ... [362 words]OliverJul 2, 2009 14:17150624
hundu [9 words]JosueJan 1, 2010 18:14150624
1All G-dnames come from pagan sources. [62 words]BlakeJul 16, 2008 15:01135286
Allah is not the Christian God [30 words]Dave EvansDec 28, 2008 20:30135286
Nice point. [21 words]Blake WinnDec 29, 2008 19:55135286
1The Jews also do not worship the same God as the Christians / Islamics [39 words]dave evansDec 30, 2008 18:01135286
Christian Jews [34 words]JosueAug 3, 2009 00:47135286
Of course the Christians worship the same God as the Jews [1361 words]DrRJPJan 11, 2015 16:16135286
1Use of the Arabic Word "allah" in Christian Witness to Muslims [96 words]John MarionJun 20, 2008 19:14132816
that's not the point [495 words]OliverJul 2, 2009 15:26132816
Allah is the unseen power for everyone, despite religion. [151 words]FilizJun 3, 2008 18:24131011
5Our dear Filiz and the word Allah [484 words]dhimmi no moreJul 16, 2008 08:22131011
God not by any other Name [621 words]Lame CherryJun 1, 2008 21:16130826
'Allah' is my rock and redeemer? [150 words]L.A. DanemanMay 29, 2008 18:31130498
21Allah is not Vedic [108 words]zzazzeefrazzeeJun 17, 2008 20:33130498
Due Diligence in re Who is Allah? [230 words]Leonard DanemanJun 21, 2008 14:26130498
A weak premise [156 words]zzazzeefrazzeeJun 22, 2008 03:23130498
1Pre-history of Islam [161 words]Leonard DanemanJul 2, 2008 03:44130498
Sources please? A biased website is not corroborating evidence. [448 words]zzazzeefrazzeeJul 2, 2008 15:46130498
Contrasting your claims with the Encyclopedia of Islam [9803 words]zzazzeefrazzeeJul 2, 2008 16:00130498
Sanskritic origin of Arabia, What is the basis? [169 words]B.N.GururajMar 8, 2009 05:26130498
1ALLAH & GOD DIFFRENT NAME OF ONE HOLY POWER [41 words]HEMCHANDRA GHAGJun 3, 2009 07:01130498
One Super Power called by different names according their language and way of understanding [181 words]I.K, Rajasthan, IndiaFeb 10, 2012 11:45130498
inaccurate table? [31 words]freddiefreeloaderApr 21, 2008 07:17126337
Elementary, dear Watson [62 words]UgriMay 27, 2008 02:43126337
1If humans are the true authors of "revealed scripture", then what's the point? [33 words]zzazzeefrazzeeApr 20, 2008 17:57126290
3For once I agree with our dear zzazz [443 words]dhimmi no moreApr 22, 2008 08:02126290
Sorry dhimmi, but your "agreement" with me here is only partly true. [140 words]zzazzefrazzeeApr 23, 2008 18:56126290
2Our dear zzazz and more qash wa tibn and his excuse today is: My Christian friends told me so [234 words]dhimmi no moreApr 25, 2008 07:07126290
2Our dear zzazz is saying that if you do not like what I'm saying then blame my Christian friends [112 words]dhimmi no moreApr 26, 2008 07:24126290
1Dhimmi's view of the Qur'an is not biased [60 words]jennifer solisApr 26, 2008 21:13126290
2Dhimmi no more's "perceived bias", zzazzefrazzee? [173 words]jennifer solisApr 26, 2008 21:46126290
Revealed Scripture? [110 words]Linda HaslamMay 29, 2008 11:02126290
If scripture reveals God, they're obviously different [302 words]jennifer solisApr 19, 2008 19:45126202
3Islam and the Judeo-Christian tradition [882 words]dhimmi no moreApr 19, 2008 16:05126192
3Just an addendum re: Islam and the Judeo-Christian tradition [134 words]dhimmi no moreApr 20, 2008 18:09126192
Isn't Ahmed Ali a little off base? [288 words]OliverApr 21, 2008 15:33126192
1Abraham was first a Gentile [888 words]jennifer solisApr 21, 2008 18:45126192
5Who is really Muhammad/Ahmad? [310 words]dhimmi no moreApr 21, 2008 21:29126192
2Arabic from dhimmi no more [286 words]jennifer solisApr 21, 2008 22:26126192
OK - OK - I'll say 'Uncle Mutalib' ... [67 words]OliverApr 22, 2008 17:19126192
5Good question [487 words]dhimmi no moreApr 22, 2008 21:08126192
4Q7:157 [467 words]dhimmi no moreApr 22, 2008 21:26126192
2Q7:157 - question for dhimmi no more [96 words]jennifer solisApr 27, 2008 17:58126192
5Q7:157 revisited and literature [457 words]dhimmi no moreMay 3, 2008 09:21126192
1Willing converts? [129 words]Linda HaslamMay 29, 2008 10:44126192
simple task [17 words]Rebecca MouldsApr 19, 2008 10:40126176
No [5 words]JohnApr 18, 2008 22:25126147
Lies, and damned lies [147 words]ShepardApr 18, 2008 10:39126089
Lies and Damned Lies - a response [376 words]Mark DurieApr 18, 2008 21:54126089
1769 King James [299 words]jennifer solisApr 19, 2008 02:32126089
Please expand your comments [485 words]OliverApr 19, 2008 09:45126089
Response to Mark Durie [614 words]ShepardApr 20, 2008 13:12126089
Divine attributes are not merely "names and titles" [175 words]zzazzeefrazzeeApr 20, 2008 14:00126089
Humans also hold that all gods are one, zzazzeefrazzee [197 words]jennifer solisApr 21, 2008 03:29126089
2Praise be to Allah, The Beneficent, the Merciful. [198 words]OliverApr 21, 2008 13:12126089
That premise that also works equally when for comparing Judaism and Christianty. [184 words]zzazzeefrazzeeApr 21, 2008 22:59126089
Thank you for your comments [54 words]zzazzeefrazzeeApr 21, 2008 23:02126089
Jennifer- it's all there in an earlier argument [61 words]zzazzeefrazzeeApr 21, 2008 23:25126089
Response to zzazzeefrazzee [587 words]Mark DurieApr 22, 2008 18:27126089
May I correct the record ... a bit? [381 words]OliverApr 24, 2008 01:29126089
A reply to Mark Durie [2131 words]zzazzeefrazzeeApr 25, 2008 00:22126089
One last try ... [287 words]OliverApr 25, 2008 17:14126089
More predictable, sanctimonious hyperbole from Oliver... [190 words]zzazzeefrazzeApr 26, 2008 00:32126089
5The word Allah and Syriac in the Qur'an [792 words]dhimmi no moreApr 26, 2008 10:25126089
Response to zzazzeefrazzee [149 words]Mark DurieMay 3, 2008 07:35126089
Thanks to dhimmi no more [28 words]Mark DurieMay 3, 2008 07:55126089
4Allah and Syriac in the late antique period and prior to the Arab invasion [328 words]dhimmi no moreMay 4, 2008 07:47126089
Rabin Almeddine's argument (Apr.6 2008 update) [358 words]jennifer solisApr 6, 2008 22:43124879
remember 'ilah' and 'al-ilah' ... [258 words]OliverApr 8, 2008 09:47124879
The Trinity in Arabic [165 words]zzazzefrazzeeApr 8, 2008 16:10124879
Oliver- you also overlook "alaha"- [39 words]zzazzeefrazzeeApr 9, 2008 17:25124879
2al-thalooth al-muqaddas and our dear Zzazz needs to stick to Urdu [822 words]dhimmi no moreApr 21, 2008 23:00124879
The book of Hadith seems to support trinity, i.e. three gods in one [160 words]zumaJul 10, 2017 01:19124879
2"Having Allah be different from God implies that Muslims pray to a special deity." Ya THINK? [32 words]DrRJPApr 6, 2008 17:26124860
What about Arabic-speaking Christians? [40 words]zzaqzzeefrazzeeApr 8, 2008 16:02124860
2The "monotheistic tradition" of the Jews was stolen by the Muslims, like everything else. [57 words]DrRJPApr 10, 2008 23:06124860
By your own logic, Christians are just as guilty. [190 words]zzazzeefrazzeeApr 13, 2008 14:03124860
1Wrong again ... as usual ... [92 words]OliverApr 14, 2008 17:18124860
More evasive absolutism from Oliver [59 words]zzazzeefrazeeApr 15, 2008 21:38124860
The usual santimonious absolutism from Oliver [193 words]zzazzeefrazeeApr 15, 2008 21:58124860
Ditto to Oliver's "Wrong again...as usual" But, please, zzazzeefrazzee, don't let that stop you... [214 words]DrRJPApr 16, 2008 18:15124860
Dr. Dr., how you miss the point; but don't let that stop you. [374 words]ZzazzeefrazzeeApr 17, 2008 16:08124860
If a scholar said that the moon is made of green cheese, would that make it so? [397 words]DrRJPApr 17, 2008 22:27124860
Keep it up ... [119 words]OliverApr 18, 2008 00:22124860
You are such a 'kidder' ... [267 words]OliverApr 18, 2008 01:34124860
I'm getting dizzy ... again [143 words]OliverApr 18, 2008 02:02124860
Amen [191 words]J PApr 18, 2008 22:13124860
Straw men and red herrings from the "Dr." [409 words]zzazzeefrazzeeApr 21, 2008 23:17124860
A summary reply to Oliver about the usage of Allah by Arabic Christians. [1344 words]zzazzeefrazzeeMar 22, 2008 14:23123251
Travel well ... wherever you are headed ... [42 words]OliverMar 31, 2008 21:53123251
Question: Is Allah God? Answer: Yes … and no. [1027 words]OliverMar 8, 2008 16:01122100
Nice try, Oliver, but your argument is still full of holes and therefore HIGHLY ERRONEOUS! [1395 words]zzazzeefrazzeeMar 10, 2008 20:09122100
Khoda - I like it - I think ... [702 words]OliverMar 11, 2008 23:31122100
What was that you said? [318 words]OliverMar 12, 2008 16:58122100
Careful now! [134 words]zzazzeefrazzeeMar 13, 2008 12:35122100
Why don't you take your own advice?? [763 words]OliverMar 14, 2008 20:49122100
More sanctimonious fanaticism from Oliver. [397 words]zzazzeefrazzeeMar 16, 2008 16:27122100
Allah [44 words]Meir StoneJun 10, 2009 17:49122100
IS ALLAH YHWH? Sorry - but - NO! [1149 words]OLIVERJun 16, 2009 12:54122100
Different Gods? or Different conceptions of the same God? [564 words]zzazzeefrazzeeFeb 27, 2008 00:39121184
YHVH = JESUS = ALLAH ... What's wrong with that? [316 words]OliverFeb 28, 2008 00:23121184
Not all Christians in the world today echo your views and attitudes. [112 words]zzazzeefrazzeeFeb 29, 2008 19:37121184
3Our dear zzazz and history 101 and Alaha/Allaha and Allah and Elohim [692 words]dhimmi no moreMar 1, 2008 21:25121184
Variant 'concepts' of GOD .... [522 words]OliverMar 4, 2008 22:23121184
51An important pre-Islamic, Christian trilingual Greek-Syriac-Arabic inscription from Zabad. [1162 words]zzazzeefrazzeeMar 5, 2008 19:24121184
"Gods" are revealed through scripture. Period. [93 words]jennifer solisMar 9, 2008 04:23121184
OK, but then the Christian concept of God is not the same as that of the Torah [157 words]zzazzeefrazzeeMar 10, 2008 19:03121184
One glaring difference [15 words]jennifer solisMar 10, 2008 22:18121184
"Different Views" based on....what? [237 words]jennifer solisMar 11, 2008 01:54121184
That's nice! [43 words]zzazzeefrazzeeMar 11, 2008 21:21121184
zzazzeefrazzee is simply a dhimmi [fill in the blank] [80 words]OliverMar 12, 2008 21:43121184
Never wrote you were, zzazzeefrazzee [141 words]jennifer solisMar 12, 2008 23:35121184
Oliver's ad hominem [132 words]zzazzeefrazzeeMar 16, 2008 16:42121184
Nice try Jennifer [566 words]zzazzeefrazzeeMar 17, 2008 13:25121184
OK – have it your way – I agree that you are ADAMANTLY disagreeable. Travel well. [16 words]OliverMar 17, 2008 22:36121184
1Reply to zzazzeefrazzee - Allah does mean a monotheistic "god" [846 words]jennifer solisMar 18, 2008 04:09121184
why mar your arguement with apologist nonsense [40 words]bosMar 18, 2008 10:40121184
It's better to disagree with absolutists than be sanctimonious [126 words]zzazzeefrazzeeMar 18, 2008 20:58121184
A response [946 words]zzazzeefrazzeeMar 19, 2008 21:25121184
Prove your 'friends' correct - why don't you? [315 words]OliverMar 19, 2008 22:26121184
Who's obfustating? [144 words]zzazzeefrazzeeMar 20, 2008 11:41121184
You sure are good at spin-casting for red herring ... [98 words]OliverMar 21, 2008 02:19121184
you were. [259 words]bosMar 21, 2008 10:25121184
A correction regarding "only guaranteed" route to heaven. [464 words]zzazzeefrazzeeMar 22, 2008 17:56121184
practical and interpretive issues [445 words]bosMar 25, 2008 10:00121184
A suggestion: study your topic BEFORE you post. [1245 words]zzazzeefrazzeeMar 28, 2008 23:20121184
a counter suggestion: take yourself less seriously and choose your battles more rationally [1133 words]bosMar 29, 2008 22:36121184
A reply to Bos [1291 words]zzazzeefrazzeeApr 5, 2008 18:59121184
4When did Arabic Christians employ "Allah" in the Arabic Bible? [521 words]zzazzeefrazzeeFeb 27, 2008 00:31121182
It's called 'Theological Correctness' ... [260 words]OliverFeb 27, 2008 23:30121182
Arabs Christians have used the term "Allah"- but you obviousuly can't deal with reality. [350 words]zzazzeefrazzeeFeb 29, 2008 19:22121182
2Our dear zzazz and half knowledge [523 words]dhimmi no moreMar 1, 2008 22:02121182
2Our dear zzazz calls himself a "linguist" then he tells us that his Arabic is poor because he is American! Poor baby [122 words]dhimmi no moreMar 2, 2008 14:39121182
1Reality check please [1281 words]OliverMar 3, 2008 01:55121182
You create your own reality! [29 words]No_absoluteMar 4, 2008 12:28121182
Dhimmi's logical fallacies (and VERY POOR comprehension of English)! [1184 words]zzazzefrazzeeMar 4, 2008 13:49121182
Poor Dhimmi can't handle a disagreement, much less compose a valid argument. [213 words]zzazzeefrazzeeMar 4, 2008 19:42121182
Please consider the Pre-Islamic paleographic evidence for Christian usage of "al-Ilah" [831 words]zzazzeefrazzeeMar 4, 2008 23:06121182
There is only one reality ... at least for finite beings [388 words]OliverMar 4, 2008 23:24121182
2The useage of al-ilah in pre-islamasized Arabic is not the point ... wait - maybe it is ... [729 words]OliverMar 5, 2008 22:23121182
Theological "correctness" is religious absolutism! [84 words]No_AbsoluteMar 6, 2008 16:19121182
That's just wonderful ... [312 words]OliverMar 6, 2008 22:44121182
Documented pre-Islamic usage is not an example of "dhimmitude" [242 words]zzazzeefrazzeeMar 7, 2008 16:04121182
Gott or gott or G-tt or g-tt [793 words]OliverMar 8, 2008 00:46121182
Your santimonious assertions are your own personal views, and are not shared by all Christians. [275 words]zzazzefrazzeeMar 8, 2008 19:23121182
OK - I guess this means we agree to disagree ... [323 words]OliverMar 8, 2008 23:33121182
2Our dear Zzazz and it is about Arabic [1503 words]dhimmi no moreMar 9, 2008 08:59121182
Our dear zzazz who knows no Arabic can type words in Arabic go figure, and the English language excuse [398 words]dhimmi no moreMar 9, 2008 09:18121182
So why do Christian Arabs call their God Allah? [262 words]dhimmi no moreMar 9, 2008 09:48121182
So why do Christian Arabs call their God Allah? [282 words]dhimmi no moreMar 9, 2008 10:02121182
Our dear zzazz and you ain't no historian either [291 words]dhimmi no moreMar 9, 2008 14:02121182
Would you deign to reconsider your sanctimonious attitudes towards Arabic speaking Christians? [375 words]zzazzeefrazzeeMar 10, 2008 00:20121182
More straw men from dhimmi [254 words]ZzazzeefrazzeeMar 10, 2008 13:44121182
Just who is the "careless reader"? (Even more straw men fallacies from Dhimmi) [220 words]zzazzefrazzeeMar 10, 2008 13:54121182
More straw men from Dhimmi [94 words]zzazzeefrazzeeMar 10, 2008 20:16121182
Dhimmi's nit-picking. [222 words]zzazzeerazzeeMar 10, 2008 20:30121182
No, Thank you ... better to appear to be sanctimonious than to possibly be blasphemous [251 words]OliverMar 11, 2008 00:44121182
Is Meccan trade as "Bogus" as Dhimmi portrays? Not according to the source he mentioned... [958 words]zzazzeefrazzeeMar 11, 2008 01:40121182
Sanctimony is the opposite of objectivity, not " [235 words]zzazzeefrazzeeMar 11, 2008 21:34121182
GO AND DO LIKEWISE ... [479 words]OliverMar 12, 2008 21:35121182
Then who was "Theos Hypsistos", and was he not a pagan deity? [261 words]zzazzeefrazzeeMar 15, 2008 19:05121182
We should agree to disagree ... and get back on topic [1074 words]OliverMar 16, 2008 04:15121182
Simple question- simple answer [41 words]zzazzeefrazzeeMar 17, 2008 21:13121182
More on the pagan term Theos Hypsistos [44 words]zzazzeefrazzeeMar 17, 2008 21:24121182
Are contractions such as "Don't" and "Do Not"; "Who's" and "Who is" completely unrelated and different? Same goes for "Allah" and "al-Ilah". [167 words]zzazzeefrazzeeMar 17, 2008 21:40121182
Another trick, but not tricky enough [168 words]jennifer solisMar 18, 2008 06:06121182
uuuh - NO [249 words]OliverMar 18, 2008 21:53121182
Q 109 [146 words]OliverMar 18, 2008 22:21121182
theos hypsistos ... who? [321 words]OliverMar 18, 2008 22:54121182
Oliver - of course not [318 words]jennifer solisMar 19, 2008 20:27121182
This is my personal name - my memorial name - forever [292 words]OliverMar 19, 2008 21:57121182
Good point, Oliver [20 words]jennifer solisMar 20, 2008 00:59121182
Get thee an education [175 words]zzazzeefrazzeeMar 20, 2008 11:59121182
Oliver's absolutism [837 words]zzazzeefrazzeeMar 20, 2008 12:53121182
Oliver's "context" is not shared by all Christians [223 words]zzazzeefrazzeeMar 20, 2008 13:02121182
Another reply [454 words]zzazzeefrazzeeMar 20, 2008 14:05121182
Nice of you to ask ... [650 words]OliverMar 20, 2008 23:15121182
Listen and learn before you rush to judgement. [726 words]zzazzeefrazzeeMar 21, 2008 00:24121182
'emeth (0571) for Oliver [409 words]jennifer solisMar 21, 2008 01:04121182
"Allah" is identified with Islam, zazz [136 words]jennifer solisMar 21, 2008 01:33121182
Phew ... at it again ... [144 words]OliverMar 21, 2008 01:58121182
zzazzeefrazzee and his "codices" [489 words]jennifer solisMar 21, 2008 17:41121182
Zzazz, your "context" is not shared by Muslims [17 words]jennifer solisMar 21, 2008 17:49121182
Did I say it was? [68 words]zzazzeefrazzeeMar 22, 2008 16:15121182
Jennifer's selective interpretations. [389 words]zzazzeefrazzeeMar 22, 2008 16:45121182
One question, Zzazz [16 words]jennifer solisMar 23, 2008 02:29121182
More resources [55 words]zazzeefrazzeeMar 24, 2008 01:41121182
Hypsistarians [19 words]RogerJan 3, 2009 15:28121182
Try here ... [240 words]OliverJan 20, 2009 21:43121182
1Origin of Allah [34 words]D G BryantJun 29, 2009 09:16121182
Allah, the god of muslims, IS NOT Jehovah יְהֹוָה TRUE God Almighty [207 words]MaxJun 23, 2014 04:38121182
Wrong use of Allah [144 words]Nick MasonMay 8, 2015 08:50121182
the meaning of Allah [10 words]DrRJPMar 20, 2017 11:26121182
An observation [137 words]Dudley PowellNov 2, 2019 13:07121182
OK ... OK ... I GIVE UP ... JESUS IS ALLAH ... WHO WILL AGREE WITH ME??? [965 words]OliverFeb 17, 2008 17:06120421
please...please get an education [186 words]MMFeb 13, 2008 12:14120107
there is no ilah but allah ... [236 words]oliverFeb 13, 2008 23:46120107
A fine thesis- up to a point [85 words]zzaazzeefrazzeeFeb 15, 2008 16:39120107
our dear Zzazz al-farkha wa al-bayda [169 words]dhimmi no moreFeb 15, 2008 21:28120107
and YOUR sources are? [42 words]zzazzeefrazzeeFeb 16, 2008 23:53120107
It's not about me ... [214 words]OliverFeb 17, 2008 13:48120107
Elohim is not another god [138 words]zzazzeefrazzeeFeb 21, 2008 10:44120107
Allah IS the NAME of the god of Islam - PERIOD [557 words]OliverFeb 23, 2008 19:56120107
Religious absolutists of any stripe are odious [57 words]No_AbsoluteFeb 24, 2008 21:48120107
El=Al [293 words]zzazzefrazzeeFeb 25, 2008 01:53120107
I have no problem with agreeing to disagree - however - I will not engage in 'NAME' calling ... [826 words]OliverFeb 25, 2008 22:11120107
are YOU talkin' to ME??? [18 words]OliverFeb 25, 2008 22:20120107
Shall we remove "God" from the bible? [227 words]zzazzeefrazzeeFeb 26, 2008 22:40120107
Just call me - Oliver [727 words]OliverFeb 27, 2008 22:47120107
1More bogus falsafa from our dear zzazz [305 words]dhimmi no moreFeb 29, 2008 19:05120107
More poor Muslim logic from no other than our dear zzazz [406 words]dhimmi no moreFeb 29, 2008 19:32120107
More Logical fallacies (and very poorly written English) from Dhimmi. [1175 words]zzazzeefrazzeeMar 4, 2008 19:20120107
More bogus Arabic from our dear zzazz [177 words]dhimmi no moreMar 9, 2008 10:17120107
Is Allah God? [26 words]Guy Leven-TorresFeb 8, 2008 06:29119791
7Elaha=God, Allah= God of Gods! [252 words]RFFeb 5, 2008 23:37119640
It is actually the definite, not plural form [33 words]zzazzeefrazzeeFeb 15, 2008 16:19119640
Gem time from our dear Zzazz [134 words]dhimmi no moreFeb 15, 2008 21:39119640
Elaha & Allah [216 words]RFFeb 16, 2008 00:28119640
1More Bogus Arabic from our dear Zzazz and his credibility is on the line and Allahuma! [534 words]dhimmi no moreFeb 16, 2008 09:22119640
1Our dear Zzazz ina tafkiruhu al-3aqli laysa mawjood [57 words]dhimmi no moreFeb 16, 2008 18:57119640
dhimmi needs to chill [362 words]zzazzefrazzeeFeb 17, 2008 00:15119640
Allah is very much found in the Arabic bible [59 words]zzazzeefrazzeeFeb 17, 2008 00:20119640
OK dhimmi, I get your point [121 words]zzazzefrazzeeFeb 17, 2008 00:26119640
More Bogus Arabic from not other than Zzazz [110 words]dhimmi no moreFeb 18, 2008 07:02119640
Our dear Zzazz I found the word Dieu in the French translation of the Qur'an [211 words]dhimmi no moreFeb 19, 2008 08:10119640
Just trying! [464 words]RFFeb 19, 2008 19:23119640
What is really the Qur'an? [555 words]dhimmi no moreFeb 19, 2008 20:48119640
The logic of Muslims [113 words]dhimmi no moreFeb 19, 2008 21:01119640
What is really Quran [102 words]RFFeb 20, 2008 18:49119640
Dhimmi-please provide a source for your claims [122 words]zzazzeefrazzeeFeb 21, 2008 10:50119640
Dhimmi, your argument is a non-sequitur [161 words]zzazzeefrazzeeFeb 21, 2008 10:59119640
Aliha is feminine- it is theplural of "Goddess" not ilah [214 words]zzazzeefrazzeeFeb 21, 2008 11:18119640
My source for Alaha/ Allaha and Allah and Syriac in the Qur'an [41 words]dhimmi no moreFeb 22, 2008 07:22119640
our dear zzazz and an axe to grind! and the why do Christians in the Middle east call their God Allah? [416 words]dhimmi no moreFeb 22, 2008 18:26119640
Syriac letterings are identical to Arab [60 words]ApostlePaulAug 3, 2012 06:28119640
Allah=God, ilah=god of gods [26 words]Anti-InsanityJan 16, 2014 03:05119640
Know your facts [68 words]KnowitbeforeyousayitJun 20, 2016 21:14119640
Direct literal Trranslation of Sarkozy's comments from French to English ( free of charge ) [142 words]J BurkeJan 25, 2008 09:05118952
Corrected Translation [161 words]Charles WeaverJan 26, 2008 13:24118952
Update from Malaysia: NOT allowed to use Allah in the Catholic publication [450 words]JihadWatchJan 4, 2008 01:45117501
What Sin A Name? [17 words]Brian HJan 15, 2008 06:20117501
From Allah to ... Christian books [275 words]JihadWatchJan 23, 2008 02:02117501
Can't Wait For Judgement Day ! [43 words]Van FrancisMar 22, 2009 03:06117501
1Also Know about the Hindu Allah [147 words]S.KanhannanJan 3, 2008 20:03117455
Is Allah God? [24 words]Alex SabyDec 26, 2007 20:42116953
Allah is the true god [81 words]anna tylorJan 3, 2008 00:20116953
Is Allah God? [65 words]Alex SabyJan 3, 2008 22:20116953
the adventure that MO and you are on [60 words]JihadWatchJan 4, 2008 01:34116953
What Is The Greatest Miracle [43 words]S.Kanhanna.Jan 4, 2008 10:38116953
Is Allah God? [26 words]Alex SabyJan 4, 2008 18:28116953
Re : Is Allah God? [25 words]TomJan 5, 2008 17:12116953
Response to JihadWatch United States [116 words]anna tylorJan 6, 2008 11:19116953
Is Allah God? [10 words]Alex SabyJan 6, 2008 22:02116953
A mole on the back is mark of a prophet!!!! [45 words]JaladhiJan 10, 2008 10:32116953
Scam [19 words]Alex SabyJan 10, 2008 21:39116953
Allah is NOT the God of the Holy Bible [195 words]BirutegalJan 18, 2008 08:46116953
Allah is not God. Period!!! [126 words]JaladhiJan 19, 2008 21:47116953
1ancient moon god, allah, represented by crescent [46 words]BirutegalJan 20, 2008 21:02116953
The Koran as proof? [51 words]Linda HaslamJan 21, 2008 14:50116953
1Moon God worshippers - already ... [41 words]OliverJan 21, 2008 22:00116953
Righto Anna! [138 words]larry B.Jan 24, 2008 14:35116953
Is Allah God? - Continued [248 words]MOJan 29, 2008 17:21116953
A little history lesson for MO [607 words]JeffFeb 8, 2008 21:22116953
2Our dear Nissar Ahmed and poor Muslim education and this must be the ultimate gem of all times: Abul Qasim and his mole [116 words]dhimmi no moreFeb 18, 2008 17:56116953
Surprise, The Bible Is Still The All Time #1 Bestseller [50 words]AnneMMar 26, 2008 11:42116953
When God is God [215 words]Rebecca MouldsDec 11, 2007 13:03116022
Jesus Is God [388 words]Afif UdinDec 11, 2007 23:07116022
Allah is not the God of Israel, and neither is Jesus [301 words]GregDec 26, 2007 00:46116022
Thank You [39 words]OliverDec 28, 2007 16:44116022
sorry to offend you [16 words]Rebecca MouldsDec 28, 2007 18:41116022
OK! Greg ... [39 words]OliverDec 30, 2007 13:40116022
Dear Oliver [198 words]moJan 1, 2008 06:06116022
My God IS the GREATEST [104 words]oliverFeb 14, 2008 00:11116022
The bible clearly dictates the death penalty for heresy, and for infidels. [127 words]No_AbsoluteFeb 29, 2008 19:47116022
Did I mention 'heresy'? [144 words]OliverMar 3, 2008 21:33116022
"Christians" have also commited genocide [233 words]No-AbsoluteMar 17, 2008 18:51116022
context - context - context [422 words]OliverMar 18, 2008 23:05116022
Man's concept of God [49 words]jennifer solisDec 7, 2007 22:42115908
Is Allah God [152 words]MoDec 10, 2007 08:24115908
God of Christianity [31 words]jennifer solisDec 11, 2007 16:19115908
Man's concept of God [117 words]gomezDec 18, 2007 23:11115908
Who have you been listening to, Gomez? [736 words]jennifer solisDec 19, 2007 02:27115908
Man's concept of god. [149 words]GOMEZDec 25, 2007 20:32115908
Greek and Hebrew [19 words]jennifer solisDec 28, 2007 00:38115908
yo MO [139 words]OliverDec 28, 2007 17:03115908
Is Allah God [99 words]moDec 31, 2007 18:13115908
Dear Oliver [275 words]moJan 1, 2008 05:46115908
Allah is NOT the God of the Holy Bible [137 words]BirutegalJan 18, 2008 12:27115908
Incest, drunkeness, rape forbidden in Holy Bible [300 words]BirutegalJan 19, 2008 21:53115908
1Prophecies fulfilled major proof of the Holy Bible as God's Word [155 words]BirutegalJan 20, 2008 08:27115908
Muhammed's Allah [58 words]Linda HaslamJan 21, 2008 15:01115908
2Allah or God or Bagwan all are mean same [205 words]AzharOct 15, 2007 21:09111553
A different perspective.. [53 words]donvanOct 29, 2007 08:43111553
Allah and Love [229 words]gomezDec 7, 2007 21:23111553
not really... [48 words]donvanDec 17, 2007 08:31111553
Allah and Love [195 words]gomezDec 18, 2007 18:28111553
APPLES AND ORANGES.. [101 words]DONVANDec 19, 2007 12:03111553
Is Allah God [334 words]GOMEZDec 25, 2007 20:12111553
To Gomez and his pile [187 words]SimonDec 28, 2007 13:12111553
Allah Alone [73 words]Linda HaslamJan 21, 2008 15:08111553
1Our dear Gomez and bipolar disorder and poor Muslim education [813 words]dhimmi no moreFeb 14, 2008 07:49111553
Yes -And- No,Why? [338 words]MsAnDaLuSOct 14, 2007 20:28111483
read this [248 words]warnerOct 15, 2007 22:58111483
Why Allah is teaching this then? [458 words]AlfanceNov 20, 2007 02:47111483
Just Allah Is true But the others are False!!! [244 words]MustafaNov 30, 2007 15:13111483
2 Questions [161 words]YnnatchkahNov 30, 2007 23:38111483
Why Allah is teaching that? [660 words]AlfanceDec 1, 2007 09:35111483
Hello warner [183 words]OliverDec 30, 2007 16:34111483
Alfance ... uhh ... [165 words]OliverDec 30, 2007 16:56111483
Why Allah is teaching this then? [40 words]alfanceDec 31, 2007 09:05111483
Dear Oliver [209 words]moJan 4, 2008 05:27111483
Dear Mo ... [1019 words]OliverJan 5, 2008 19:10111483
Is Allah God [307 words]MoJan 10, 2008 14:06111483
What would you have me do ... [373 words]OliverJan 11, 2008 23:09111483
god,allah is just a name . [445 words]warnerOct 13, 2007 23:19111409
Allah=Allah...no one else [396 words]ElizabethOct 9, 2007 15:15110856
Allah IS God [180 words]TajOct 10, 2007 23:33110856
Allah still equals Allah...no one else [162 words]ElizabethOct 12, 2007 11:21110856
couple of corrections [280 words]TajOct 12, 2007 22:38110856
Is God God? [84 words]Linda HaslamOct 17, 2007 15:31110856
Allah means "God" for Arab Christians and is found in the Arabic Holy Bible. [219 words]zzazzeefrazzeeOct 17, 2007 18:26110856
Good questions... [58 words]TajOct 18, 2007 02:32110856
Exactly... [87 words]donvanOct 18, 2007 15:03110856
Here is another "Why"? [22 words]Linda HaslamOct 18, 2007 23:34110856
Comparative analogies [50 words]Linda HaslamOct 18, 2007 23:44110856
As He Defines Himself? [52 words]Linda HaslamOct 18, 2007 23:52110856
Not exactly... [20 words]TajOct 19, 2007 19:08110856
He does so via... [104 words]TajOct 19, 2007 19:22110856
Where "why" is... [114 words]TajOct 19, 2007 20:53110856
"Word of God" [156 words]Linda HaslamOct 21, 2007 09:10110856
Outside the box [74 words]Linda HaslamOct 21, 2007 09:23110856
please elaborate, [51 words]donvanOct 22, 2007 09:27110856
elaboration [81 words]TajOct 23, 2007 15:19110856
Paradise... [259 words]DONVANOct 24, 2007 09:05110856
chasing your tail.. [57 words]donvanOct 24, 2007 16:05110856
Discernment... [211 words]TajOct 24, 2007 17:44110856
EXPANSION.. [250 words]DONVANOct 25, 2007 09:36110856
inaccurate... [73 words]donvanOct 25, 2007 14:32110856
Elucidation [553 words]TajOct 26, 2007 02:48110856
Really... [126 words]donvanOct 26, 2007 20:25110856
Or not... [64 words]TajOct 27, 2007 19:18110856
and you as well... [33 words]donvanOct 29, 2007 08:35110856
Really.... [64 words]donvanOct 29, 2007 08:54110856
the Hebrew God has a name and it isn't allah [399 words]OliverDec 30, 2007 23:40110856
Arabic bible edition. [213 words]zzazzeefrazzeeJan 1, 2008 17:53110856
Dear zzazzeefrazzee ... [267 words]OliverJan 5, 2008 19:30110856
Allah= Elohim [149 words]zzazzeefrazzeeJan 19, 2008 14:00110856
YHWH is the GREATEST! [1167 words]OliverJan 21, 2008 21:28110856
TAJ [245 words]OliverJan 22, 2008 22:02110856
Oliver... [422 words]TajJan 25, 2008 02:14110856
1Our dear Zaazz and his big time falsafa [23 words]dhimmi no moreFeb 13, 2008 19:02110856
Our dear Zzazz and more bogus falsafa [474 words]dhimmi no moreFeb 13, 2008 19:29110856
...and your question is? [54 words]zzazzefrazzeeFeb 15, 2008 16:22110856
Do you have any more straw men you care to share? [179 words]zzazzeefrazzeeFeb 15, 2008 16:32110856
Our dear Zazz al-fahlawi al-kabeer [31 words]dhimmi no moreFeb 15, 2008 20:26110856
Our dear Zzazz and speaking of qash wa tibn [376 words]dhimmi no moreFeb 15, 2008 20:43110856
Our dear Zzazz is quoting a corrupted book (sic) [54 words]dhimmi no moreFeb 15, 2008 20:50110856
More gems from our dear Zzazz and more tibn (straw) part deux [375 words]dhimmi no moreFeb 15, 2008 21:05110856
Thanks for your ad hominem attacks [96 words]zzazzeefrazzee@gmail.comFeb 16, 2008 23:43110856
Are you feeling imabalanced? In need of psychological medication? [77 words]zzazzeefrazzeeFeb 16, 2008 23:47110856
You still did not answer my question! Why do you quote a corrupted book?The Bible that is? [4 words]dhimmi no moreFeb 18, 2008 06:51110856
So why do Christian Arabs call their God Allah? [70 words]dhimmi no moreFeb 18, 2008 07:18110856
Our dear zzazz and Arabic 101 [148 words]dhimmi no moreFeb 18, 2008 17:42110856
You still did not answer my question our dear zzazz [42 words]dhimmi no moreFeb 19, 2008 08:15110856
Logic 101 dhimmi dearest? [359 words]zzazzeefrazzeeFeb 21, 2008 11:39110856
Our dear Zzazz and more gems [310 words]dhimmi no moreFeb 22, 2008 18:48110856
Our dear zzazz and his little gem that Christian Arabs call their god Allah [491 words]dhimmi no moreFeb 23, 2008 07:04110856
Adonay and gods of religion: not the same [920 words]jennifer solisOct 8, 2007 19:18110776
just was is "same"? [195 words]TajOct 10, 2007 23:50110776
THE "BEING" UNDER CONSIDERATION........ [511 words]jennifer solisOct 11, 2007 19:39110776
the danger of generalization [245 words]TajOct 12, 2007 23:02110776
The word Allah! Is it god or is it the God? [97 words]dhimmi no moreOct 13, 2007 16:50110776
"generalization" is what you're doing, Taj [459 words]jennifer solisOct 14, 2007 03:46110776
the big "G"... [393 words]TajOct 19, 2007 20:14110776
a couple points [225 words]TajOct 19, 2007 20:40110776
Jesus is LORD [193 words]OliverJan 22, 2008 21:28110776
MARANATHA ... [268 words]OliverJan 22, 2008 23:08110776
curious... [127 words]TajJan 25, 2008 01:21110776
Ar Rabb [152 words]TajJan 25, 2008 02:45110776
2YHWH - This is My name forever, and this is My memorial-name to all generations. [1581 words]OliverJan 26, 2008 15:22110776
...by whatever name you call upon Him [544 words]TajJan 28, 2008 04:43110776
Misguided elites.... [182 words]donvanOct 8, 2007 14:41110756
Just because the Pope says it does not make it true [110 words]Ibn KammunaOct 8, 2007 07:59110711
Allah the God [119 words]QaziJul 31, 2007 13:17105180
Allah the God information for Qazi [178 words]InfidelJul 31, 2007 16:53105180
Our dear Qazi the big time faylasoof [121 words]dhimmi no moreJul 31, 2007 17:24105180
The god [101 words]donvanJul 31, 2007 17:32105180
Sitck to what you know, "Infidel" [161 words]Abu NudnikOct 10, 2007 18:45105180
No , allah is not God [59 words]Phil GreendJun 2, 2007 14:5495800
prophet [21 words]jennifer solisOct 10, 2007 17:3595800
allah was not there [82 words]maria nossanMar 12, 2007 15:1186057
Maria, well said [161 words]allah is not thereMar 15, 2007 10:5886057
You are incorrect [73 words]Yaghoub AlparMar 26, 2007 19:5986057
I don't agree [155 words]marianossanMar 28, 2007 07:5286057
IGNORANT TO DARE ANYTHING [111 words]AysheMay 8, 2007 00:3786057
to ayshe [161 words]mariaMay 10, 2007 15:0986057
Our Dear Ayshe and her Muslim education [49 words]dhimmi no moreMay 17, 2007 07:0486057
To Maria [183 words]AysheMay 18, 2007 00:1886057
Who created you? [480 words]AysheMay 18, 2007 00:4186057
Oh Ayshe! [182 words]MariaMay 19, 2007 11:2786057
Who created me? It ain't Allah [40 words]dhimmi no moreJul 22, 2007 10:3686057
Islam is Peace & Love!! [63 words]Prince of Persia!!Jul 29, 2007 17:3886057
1The "Prince of Persia" is a demon mentioned in Daniel 10:20 [258 words]Charles MartelAug 28, 2007 14:5686057
Dave Hunt [17 words]Concerned EuropeanSep 12, 2007 07:0386057
God is Allah [115 words]Mark el ViejoOct 7, 2007 21:1286057
peace? [26 words]johnOct 18, 2007 05:5186057
Hey again! [226 words]Yaghoub AlparJan 26, 2008 21:0386057
Point of correction [172 words]IbrahimDec 29, 2006 16:3371044
4Difference between essa and Jesus [81 words]JohnJan 9, 2007 06:3771044
Another confusion! [89 words]IbrahimJan 10, 2007 10:0571044
ibrhaim is confused but we are sure about our Jesus Christ [238 words]JohnJan 11, 2007 01:2571044
ibrahim read my comments with care [44 words]JohnJan 12, 2007 02:3371044
1The Divine name that will endure for ever [148 words]TruthJan 21, 2007 16:0471044
1God [11148 words]JohnJan 22, 2007 01:2571044
Lost in space [318 words]SimonJul 5, 2007 23:3071044
Jesus was son of Hazart Maryam [221 words]anonymousAug 2, 2007 03:4971044
Allah [86 words]Muhammad Mujahid Younus HoraniDec 5, 2007 14:4171044
Lame Excuse [199 words]Reply toDec 6, 2007 02:0071044
allah is no god [14 words]tusharJan 28, 2008 13:0071044
essa and jesus [9 words]trinaj.Sep 27, 2008 11:0471044
Divine Name - YHWH [195 words]A Witness of JehovahApr 7, 2013 09:4171044
What Muslims really believe [22 words]LillyMay 21, 2014 18:3371044
To those who may hate Islam [and especially Mr. Lactantius (the first one)] [1486 words]JusticarDec 25, 2006 15:0470500
Peace and violence in Christianity and Islam [3950 words]Lactantius Jr.Dec 29, 2006 10:5570500
READ THE OLD TESTAMENT [88 words]SameerDec 22, 2006 05:0770219
"I have read the Old Testament Sameer" [1585 words]Lactantius JrDec 26, 2006 19:5270219
Jesus [8 words]Ibrahim AliDec 28, 2006 12:1170219
"How?" [11 words]Lactantius Jr.Dec 28, 2006 19:3070219
1Allah vs. Yahweh [449 words]skmillerNov 14, 2006 10:5366081
Textual Integrity [117 words]Eugene TurnerNov 14, 2006 21:3366081
God doesn't change [124 words]NurayDec 1, 2006 17:4166081
Slipped my mind [102 words]EuGene TurnerDec 2, 2006 16:3666081
EuGene [14 words]SohailDec 3, 2006 09:0666081
The One God (in three persons, trinity) [33 words]EuGene TurnerDec 3, 2006 22:5666081
Reply 2 Nuray [191 words]skmillerDec 4, 2006 13:1566081
HS but the million dollar question [57 words]Euene TurnerDec 4, 2006 18:0866081
EuGene [20 words]SohailDec 5, 2006 08:4866081
Jesus, not the Son of God [542 words]EuGene TurnerDec 6, 2006 00:1866081
Explain [48 words]SohailDec 7, 2006 09:1666081
Eugene, Yes HS is God part of Triune, Godhead [247 words]skmillerDec 7, 2006 11:2266081
HS but the million dollar question. [555 words]EuGene TurnerDec 8, 2006 12:3566081
Explain to Sohail [598 words]EuGene TurnerDec 8, 2006 15:1366081
One God [153 words]SohailDec 9, 2006 10:1466081
For Nuray: and what is really islam? [84 words]dhimmi no moreDec 9, 2006 16:5166081
For Nuray and what is really Islam part deux! [732 words]dhimmi no moreDec 10, 2006 07:3066081
Explain to Sohail [415 words]EuGene TurnerDec 10, 2006 09:3366081
For Sohail, maybe in your dreams! [40 words]dhimmi no moreDec 10, 2006 15:1366081
For Sohail and Muslim missionaries aka Tablighees! [259 words]dhimmi no moreDec 11, 2006 07:3266081
Have you read? [105 words]DasFeb 18, 2007 06:0666081
3I love you, Dhimmi no more [75 words]JihadWatchJan 4, 2008 02:2266081
2I agree with you [43 words]christinaMay 9, 2009 16:1066081
2DHIMMI [66 words]VIRENDERMay 16, 2011 08:5966081
Attributes different of same God. [52 words]helloOct 28, 2006 09:1864676
Attributes [343 words]EuGene TurnerDec 4, 2006 15:2664676
no to dr pipes and mr pope [226 words]rwOct 15, 2006 04:5860404
My God... [87 words]donvanOct 24, 2006 17:2560404
Islam is one of the great civilizations of human beings [167 words]NurayOct 14, 2006 14:3060356
25Diffrence Between God and allaha [201 words]johnOct 28, 2006 05:5460356
Allah is God of Jesus. God is one. [151 words]nurayOct 30, 2006 14:3960356
1Reply to Nuray [85 words]johnOct 31, 2006 04:1660356
2For Nuray: The Qur'an says that Jesus is indeed God! [7 words]dhimmi no moreNov 1, 2006 07:3860356
Who Is This Allah? [170 words]Lactantius JrNov 1, 2006 08:0460356
1Replay to nuray [302 words]johnNov 10, 2006 04:1260356
Answer to John [130 words]NurayNov 11, 2006 15:0860356
For Sohail and the origins of Islam and the fate of communism! [821 words]dhimmi no moreNov 24, 2006 08:3260356
A very simple answer: [154 words]EuGene TurnerDec 1, 2006 00:3660356
to EuGene Turner: Mohammad (s.a.v.) never said that Abraham was a liar [153 words]NurayDec 1, 2006 17:2960356
God doesn't change! [310 words]EuGene TurnerDec 1, 2006 23:2460356
never said that Abraham was a liar. [211 words]EuGene TurnerDec 2, 2006 00:0160356
For Nuray and kissing the stone! [98 words]dhimmi no moreDec 11, 2006 19:4760356
allah . [92 words]jason.Mar 15, 2008 06:3060356
Hz. Muhammed after Abraham,Moses & Jesus [35 words]NurayMar 26, 2008 05:3060356
ALLAHA [6 words]mohammad nayeemDec 25, 2008 06:1460356
Please change your wrong view on Islam and Allaha [75 words]NawazMar 28, 2009 06:3260356
ALLAH- THE ONLY GOD [45 words]sharminOct 1, 2009 10:2360356
Allaha is Almighty and Mercifull [104 words]Mohamamd Abdul AzeezOct 7, 2009 06:3560356
You should comment according to your knowledge ability. [135 words]Mohammed Ali RezaJan 25, 2010 16:5060356
Hypocrisy is ironic. [41 words]LogicAug 25, 2010 18:3660356
2Are you serious?? [85 words]saraAug 25, 2010 18:5160356
Nawaz [160 words]VIRENDERMay 16, 2011 08:3960356
no difference between ALLAHA and GOD [40 words]RUBINA KHANMay 14, 2012 01:4060356
the term islam means peace. [48 words]rameez ramzan waniDec 17, 2012 10:0160356
allah [9 words]ddddMar 14, 2015 05:5460356
I recall arguments from the WSJ's Opinion Journal... [138 words]J.S.Oct 2, 2006 17:1658631
Allah is not God and it can not be [26 words]Michael azeezApr 11, 2017 11:2658631
75Allah is DEFINITELY NOT the same god as the God of Israel, who is also the Christian God, the Father [1455 words]Dr RJPOct 2, 2006 16:4458626
Allah Affirms the Covenant with Israel [378 words]HamiltonOct 4, 2006 13:1358626
What is most important is how Christians act now as opposed to then. [342 words]Dr RJPOct 5, 2006 00:1658626
Hamilton and the wonderful Qur'an [83 words]InfidelOct 5, 2006 14:1958626
1Allah is the Moon God [89 words]Henrik Ræder ClausenOct 7, 2006 13:2758626
"A tale of two halves" [1051 words]Lactantius JrOct 9, 2006 09:4958626
Wahhabism Is The Problem [504 words]HamiltonOct 10, 2006 15:2758626
A Tale Of Two Halves continued [1567 words]Lactantius JrOct 12, 2006 17:3858626
Lactantius Jr [176 words]SohailOct 18, 2006 10:2158626
Reply to Lactanius Jr [248 words]SohailOct 18, 2006 11:0858626
For Soahil and the Qur'an indeed says that Jesus is God! [41 words]dhimmi no moreOct 19, 2006 07:1158626
dhimmi no more [17 words]SohailOct 19, 2006 17:1958626
1For Sohail (Rabina Yusahil Alihu) and Jesus in the Qur'an! [153 words]dhimmi no moreOct 19, 2006 19:1858626
Jesus is not God [224 words]SohailOct 21, 2006 10:2058626
now what, sohail? [4 words]bongOct 21, 2006 10:4158626
2For Sohail: and the Qur'an says that Jesus is indeed your Allah! [1159 words]dhimmi no moreOct 21, 2006 18:3358626
Dhimmi [614 words]SohailOct 23, 2006 11:3358626
2For Sohail and what is really the Trinity in the Qur'an and his chuzpah! [523 words]dhimmi no moreOct 23, 2006 20:0458626
1Jesus brings fire, division and salvation [713 words]Lactantius JrOct 24, 2006 08:0958626
1For Sohail and more chutzpah and Jesus is indeed God according to the Qur'an! [358 words]dhimmi no moreOct 24, 2006 18:3058626
Dhimmi [203 words]SohailOct 25, 2006 07:4458626
Jesus died for sins [135 words]SohailOct 25, 2006 10:4558626
3For Sohail and examples of the poor translation of the Qur'an by Yusuf 3Ali and the Qur'an really says that jesus was indeed God [284 words]dhimmi no moreOct 25, 2006 18:1658626
Halleluia, what a Saviour!! [1264 words]Lactantius Jr.Oct 26, 2006 07:1358626
1For Sohail and Muslim logic and the Qur'an says that jesus is indeed God! [144 words]dhimmi no moreOct 26, 2006 07:4458626
Dhimmi why don't you [96 words]SohailOct 26, 2006 10:5958626
For Sohail Muslim logic/education and the Qur'an indeed says that Jesus is God! [239 words]dhimmi no moreOct 28, 2006 08:3558626
2For Sohail and the Qu'an indeed says that Jesus is a God! And the strange Quranic theology! [480 words]dhimmi no moreOct 29, 2006 10:4858626
1Jesus Died for sins of All including hitler ( for sohail) [178 words]johnNov 14, 2006 02:3958626
dhimmi [10 words]SohailNov 21, 2006 09:0258626
dhimmi no more [199 words]SohailNov 21, 2006 09:1358626
John [12 words]SohailNov 21, 2006 09:1558626
Lactantius Jr [385 words]SohailNov 21, 2006 09:3558626
For Sohail and more muslim fantasy! [53 words]dhimmi no moreNov 21, 2006 19:2558626
For Sohail and the Qur'an says that Jesus is indeed God [269 words]dhimmi no moreNov 21, 2006 19:4258626
Did Jesus die for Hitler's sins [415 words]JeffNov 22, 2006 09:1858626
Please choose life Sohail [1776 words]Lactantius JrNov 22, 2006 16:4258626
Answer to sohail who is asking for salvation by holy blood of JESUS [1324 words]JohnNov 23, 2006 03:0258626
dhimmi [20 words]SohailNov 23, 2006 09:2658626
dhimmi [16 words]SohailNov 23, 2006 09:2758626
Lactantius Jr [27 words]SohailNov 23, 2006 09:3258626
Lactantius Jr [71 words]SohailNov 23, 2006 09:3758626
For Sohail and Jesus in the Qur'an! and poor theology! [144 words]dhimmi no moreNov 23, 2006 17:5158626
For Sohail [17 words]dhimmi no moreNov 23, 2006 18:1658626
I'm so sorry Sohail [233 words]Lactantius Jr.Nov 23, 2006 18:3858626
Question for sohail [73 words]johnNov 24, 2006 02:1458626
dhimmi [12 words]SohailNov 24, 2006 09:1658626
John [14 words]SohailNov 24, 2006 09:2058626
How do you know Sohail? [29 words]Lactantius Jr.Nov 25, 2006 09:0258626
How do you know Sohail? [29 words]Lactantius Jr.Nov 25, 2006 09:0358626
Lactantius Jr [23 words]SohailNov 28, 2006 09:2458626
To Sohail, please confirm [54 words]Lactantius JrNov 28, 2006 16:2458626
Lactantius Jr [104 words]SohailNov 30, 2006 08:4158626
Qur'anic testimony to the Bible [620 words]Lactantius JrDec 1, 2006 09:5058626
Lactantius Jr [36 words]SohailDec 2, 2006 13:5558626
"Standing" [1738 words]Lactantius Jr.Dec 4, 2006 10:2658626
Lactantius Jr [21 words]SohailDec 5, 2006 08:4658626
"Old Testament Prophecy fulfilled in The Lord Jesus Christ, The Son of God" [287 words]Lactantius JrDec 6, 2006 06:2358626
Jesus is not God [363 words]SohailDec 7, 2006 09:2758626
"sons of God" and Jesus the Incarnate Son of God [1484 words]Lactantius Jr.Dec 8, 2006 10:3858626
Lactantius Jr [15 words]SohailDec 9, 2006 10:1658626
For Sohail but the Qur'an says that jesus is god! [10 words]dhimmi no moreDec 10, 2006 15:1658626
"What does the Bible say?" [640 words]Lactantius JrDec 11, 2006 09:5358626
dhimmi [20 words]SohailDec 12, 2006 09:3158626
Lactantius Jr [35 words]SohailDec 12, 2006 09:5358626
For Sohail and the Qu'an indeed says that Jesus is a God! And the poor Quranic theology part deux! [264 words]dhimmi no moreDec 12, 2006 17:4158626
Please Explain [89 words]Lactantius JrDec 13, 2006 04:1458626
Lactantius Jr [47 words]SohailDec 14, 2006 10:1758626
dhimmi [113 words]SohailDec 14, 2006 10:2158626
"And the Word became flesh and dwelt among us, full of Grace and Truth" [975 words]Lactantius Jr.Dec 16, 2006 11:5858626
The Gospels [77 words]SohailDec 17, 2006 11:2758626
"let's deal with the job in hand" [210 words]Lactantius Jr.Dec 17, 2006 18:5458626
1Lactantius Jr [51 words]SohailDec 19, 2006 09:0758626
Lactantius Jr [419 words]SohailDec 19, 2006 09:2458626
The Lord Jesus Christ's temptations by the devil [381 words]Lactantius Jr.Dec 22, 2006 19:0258626
What are the implications of the "challenge" having been met by the devil Sohail? [987 words]Lactantius JrDec 22, 2006 19:0358626
Lactantius Jr [264 words]SohailDec 27, 2006 05:5458626
Satan [499 words]RajeshDec 31, 2006 03:2658626
Thank you Rajesh [390 words]Lactantius Jr.Jan 2, 2007 15:1758626
rajesh [1489 words]SohailJan 5, 2007 09:0658626
IS ALLAH THE MOON GOD? [58 words]shoaibJan 20, 2007 11:3958626
"Who Is This Allah?" [186 words]Lactantius Jr.Feb 12, 2007 08:5258626
In the first link it reveals that "dhimmi no more" is poor in reasoning! [209 words]Hassan PierreApr 17, 2007 09:4658626
Our dear Hassan aka Pierre al-tablighee and Q3:49 and the Qur'an indeed says that Jesus is God! [221 words]dhimmi no moreApr 17, 2007 20:3458626
For our dear hassan aka Pierre: Pagansim and other sordid matters [486 words]dhimmi no moreApr 18, 2007 07:5158626
Our dear Hassan and the gift of the Hellenes aka the Greek pagans [427 words]dhimmi no moreApr 18, 2007 17:2158626
"dhimi no more" is so nonsense who always argue from nothing [541 words]Hassan Pierre ArcenoApr 21, 2007 06:4958626
Oh, you forgot that the Qur'an says that Jesus did not die! and only a God never dies [4 words]dhimmi no moreApr 21, 2007 19:3758626
Our dear Hassan al-tablighee and the Qur'an indeed says that jesus created life therefore he is your God [230 words]dhimmi no moreApr 22, 2007 09:1558626
For our dear Hassan and the Qur'an really says that jesus created life and he is God [327 words]dhimmi no moreApr 22, 2007 14:0258626
Paganism reborn! [51 words]Lujack SkylarkJun 26, 2007 23:5458626
Pope Benedict XVI [379 words]Lujack SkylarkJul 11, 2007 01:2258626
Thanks Sohail, [105 words]donvanOct 25, 2007 14:4658626
Is "Allah" A False God? [1003 words]amil ImaniNov 12, 2007 03:0958626
Why must we as Christians and Jews be ovewhelmed by Halaal food? [77 words]sonnetMar 3, 2010 08:5458626
The Palestinian Arabs are the occupiers of Jewish land [339 words]YJ DraimanJan 24, 2011 22:4458626
yes is true that we don't have any god apart from the Holy ONE does our God [11 words]Agyekum Adu RobertSep 6, 2012 01:2558626
about christianity and islamic rilegion [6 words]Agyekum Adu RobertSep 6, 2012 01:2758626
not the same God at all [1376 words]Lactantius JrSep 14, 2012 14:1058626
Is Alah the same as the G_d of Israel? [37 words]Jonathan PrickettSep 30, 2012 17:5058626
1a highly appreciated [18 words]ChaJul 19, 2013 12:1958626
1Is there anything that does not upset the Religion of Perpetual Outrage? [49 words]Dr. RJPJul 22, 2013 18:4058626
Without The SON Of GOD, nobody, n o b o d y can reach THE FATHER ALMIGHTY CREATOR Of the Heavens and Earth [257 words]TonyDec 23, 2014 18:4958626
Worship to the true God of Israel [125 words]MARKFeb 11, 2015 19:3658626
1Are You Kidding? [105 words]JohnJun 28, 2015 04:4658626
Allah not the one true God [26 words]TinaJul 25, 2015 20:5758626
Allah/Jehovah same [205 words]james lOct 21, 2015 19:3958626
No. [17 words]GgJan 31, 2016 03:2858626
Sources? [68 words]EliseJan 4, 2017 12:1658626
Allah is not God [12 words]Jessica WaldenJan 26, 2017 13:4858626
Definitly not the same god as allah [2 words]Anastasia weaverMar 8, 2017 11:1258626
All Gods of religions are Aliens from the Pleidean and Orion galaxies [165 words]MetaphorMar 17, 2017 11:2658626
Popes are human, too [38 words]JeepThangOct 2, 2006 15:1758614
Can God change his Mind? [81 words]NurayOct 14, 2006 14:4558614
For Nuray rabina yunawar 'aqluhu and the answer is yes! [45 words]dhimmi no moreOct 24, 2006 18:3758614
Popes Are Human too. [85 words]Lujack SkylarkMay 11, 2007 12:3058614
who is bigger [280 words]cabbage juiceOct 2, 2006 02:1458556
The Islam Conundrum [968 words]Amil ImaniOct 1, 2006 19:4358521
Is Allah God??? [209 words]Rebecca E. MouldsOct 1, 2006 18:2858515
God is Love [206 words]lindaOct 1, 2006 15:4558495
The god of Mohammed.... [168 words]donvanOct 3, 2006 13:4058495
Allah is greater - than what? [110 words]Henrik Ræder ClausenOct 24, 2006 15:3858495
For Henrik: great observation and the word Akbar [331 words]dhimmi no moreOct 28, 2006 08:2058495
ALLAAH [26 words]Raveena sharmaMay 22, 2012 03:2558495
Sola Scriptura is more than semantics [479 words]DemosthenesOct 1, 2006 15:1858483
Sola Scriptura [99 words]EuGene TurnerDec 4, 2006 15:4458483
Do Muslims and Jews Worship the Same Deity? [192 words]Pof. Paul EidelbergOct 1, 2006 01:2258415
Thanks [15 words]Regan HuffmanOct 1, 2006 19:2258415
5"Allah of the Quran" is the "god" of this world [373 words]DarrenOct 1, 2006 01:1158413
Very true... [25 words]HarveyOct 4, 2006 14:1158413
Thank you Harvey [9 words]DarrenOct 4, 2006 20:0058413
For darren: the Quran indeed says that Jesus is indeed God would you like to know more? [40 words]dhimmi no moreOct 19, 2006 19:2458413
"Dhimmi no more" you are confused or deceitful [490 words]DarrenOct 21, 2006 00:0558413
For Darren and the Qur'an! [265 words]dhimmi no moreOct 21, 2006 18:5858413
The pope knows his stuff [179 words]Henrik Ræder ClausenOct 24, 2006 15:5758413
Careful in Comparing the three "Abrahamic" religions. There are many errors on all sides. [230 words]AbarbanelNov 5, 2006 21:4258413
To Abarbane: Why do non-Muslims fool themselves about Islam [117 words]nurayNov 12, 2006 15:1258413
1Nuray, Religious mythology [298 words]InfidelNov 12, 2006 18:2258413
Infidel [18 words]SohailNov 29, 2006 09:3458413
Political Correct Theology [292 words]Caesar ArevaloSep 30, 2006 20:5658398
The God of the Bible is not the same as the Qur'anic Allah [388 words]Lactantius Jr.Sep 30, 2006 16:3858369
1Proof that Jesus Prayed to Allah [140 words]HamiltonSep 30, 2006 15:2858361
For Hamilton: and the absurd! [332 words]dhimmi no moreSep 30, 2006 18:5658361
Absurd But True: Jesus Worshipped Allah [400 words]HamiltonSep 30, 2006 20:2858361
Proof? really? [113 words]klewOct 1, 2006 02:2258361
For Hamilton: and the absurd part deux! [149 words]dhimmi no moreOct 1, 2006 08:2358361
For Hamilton: your reference is Wikipedia? give me a break! non sequitor and the absurd part trois! [448 words]dhimmi no moreOct 1, 2006 17:3558361
For Hamilton: The Qur'an says that Jesus is God! part quatre! [453 words]dhimmi no moreOct 1, 2006 21:0358361
1Still The Same God [993 words]HamiltonOct 4, 2006 12:4358361
Help is on the way... [63 words]HarveyOct 4, 2006 14:2558361
Help is here [47 words]HamiltonOct 4, 2006 17:5358361
For Hamilton: and reading the sources in their primary languages! [688 words]dhimmi no moreOct 4, 2006 18:4258361
For Dhimmi No More: "Truth is one, the wise call it by many names" [1346 words]HamiltonOct 6, 2006 16:5258361
For Hamilton: and the absurd revisited! [97 words]dhimmi no moreOct 6, 2006 18:1858361
For Hamilton: and the absurd revisited part deux! [386 words]dhimmi no moreOct 7, 2006 08:1858361
Jesus can only be a human messenger [550 words]erica balkmanOct 15, 2006 17:0058361
For Erica: and the word for today is you are a careless reader! [147 words]dhimmi no moreOct 17, 2006 20:4058361
For erica and the Qur'an says that Jesus is indeed God! What can I tell you? part deux! [149 words]dhimmi no moreOct 17, 2006 20:5758361
For Erica: and fasting Ramadan part trois! [252 words]dhimmi no moreOct 18, 2006 07:3358361
Need translation of Arabic sentences(?) in your comments [63 words]JaladhiOct 18, 2006 16:4258361
To erica balkman, [15 words]NurayOct 18, 2006 16:4958361
For Jaladhi and Arabic translations [240 words]dhimmi no moreOct 18, 2006 17:5358361
For Erica and which Trinity are you talikng about? [142 words]dhimmi no moreOct 18, 2006 18:0558361
Thanks [21 words]JaladhiOct 19, 2006 17:5158361
For erica and the Qur'an says that Jesus is indeed God! What can I tell you? part trois! [152 words]dhimmi no moreOct 20, 2006 07:2258361
For Erica: and jesus in the Qur'an part and who is counting anymore! [78 words]dhimmi no moreOct 20, 2006 17:3158361
For Erica and the flawed Muslim logic and on breathing air and eating food! [220 words]dhimmi no moreOct 23, 2006 07:4158361
Dhimmi no more [86 words]VijayOct 27, 2006 04:3158361
For Vijay and the word falsafa and the evolution of the Arabic language and the fraudulent concept of Jahiliya! [1119 words]dhimmi no moreOct 27, 2006 18:0358361
Dhimmi no more [9 words]VijayOct 30, 2006 03:3858361
Meaning of the Quran [17 words]MuhammadMar 9, 2007 03:4058361
For Muhammad and his poor Muslim education [244 words]dhimmi no moreMar 10, 2007 07:5558361
7Jesus said Allah [241 words]ZarrarApr 22, 2007 13:5358361
God is a relative 'abstract' concept, sort of like love....or maybe more like jealousy. Not sure. [326 words]FlashNov 8, 2007 22:5458361
please translate into arabic.. :) [11 words]soniaDec 11, 2008 20:3258361
1Pluralism [91 words]Vandana MittalJul 24, 2010 03:0958361
In self-contradiction [130 words]
w/response from Daniel Pipes
Ron ThompsonSep 30, 2006 14:1558351
God belief preventing understanding and dispatching of Islam [270 words]George MasonSep 30, 2006 14:0458349
Of course it's the same deity; the difference is in the believers [135 words]Stan GoodmanSep 30, 2006 13:1958346
Stan Goodman, Allah and His personality disorder [135 words]InfidelSep 30, 2006 19:0758346
Of course it's the same deity; the difference is in the believers [280 words]Stan GoodmanOct 1, 2006 01:2058346
Stan Goodman, Muhammad's history [680 words]InfidelOct 1, 2006 20:2358346
infidel [153 words]Ibrahim AliNov 30, 2006 09:0858346
Muhammad's History [3 words]Lujack SkylarkApr 27, 2007 18:0358346
Allah is not God [274 words]Lujack SkylarkApr 29, 2007 18:3358346
Ibrahim Ali [380 words]Lujack SkylarkMay 17, 2007 13:2058346
Has anyone figured out the pharaoh of the Exodus? [429 words]Lujack SkylarkMay 17, 2007 18:0858346
1Best of Both Worlds [756 words]Lujack SkylarkAug 14, 2007 03:1558346
IS ALLAH GOD PART II [845 words]Lujack SkylarkSep 7, 2007 01:4558346
Jesus Christ is not God if the Muslim deity is. [270 words]MichaelSep 30, 2006 11:1158335
They're All The Same God [136 words]BreannaOct 10, 2006 23:3058335
no shred of doubt left [145 words]jennifer solisOct 17, 2007 16:2558335
God is Imaginary [52 words]DavidSep 29, 2006 20:1258256
Evidence for existence of God [779 words]JohnSep 30, 2006 01:3458256
Coptic Church in Egypt [24 words]NancyJan 20, 2011 18:3158256
Alla of Islam is not the God of Christians [79 words]f.shakkiSep 29, 2006 19:0358239
1The God of the moon [58 words]Frank KashaOct 28, 2007 22:1158239
Is Allah God [165 words]moJan 12, 2008 09:2458239
Yo Mo ... [47 words]OliverApr 24, 2008 18:0058239
Which Allah? [214 words]Tony CostaSep 29, 2006 15:2358222
Allah is not the same God [12 words]Only OneSep 29, 2006 14:3258216
Not even a close call for Jews [94 words]Gene BearmanSep 29, 2006 14:2358213
The Issue is final authority--things different are not the same; Be not deceived--Allah does not equal God. [259 words]John FunSep 29, 2006 14:1458211
Hashem and Allah [137 words]john w mcginleySep 29, 2006 14:1258210
Is Allah God? [14 words]The Rational FoolSep 28, 2006 21:2758121
Can never be the same - here's why [285 words]SupercrusaderSep 28, 2006 07:2858023
Same God, Different Religion [264 words]AverroesSep 29, 2006 12:1658023
Is Allah God? [162 words]Dannel R. BallesterosSep 29, 2006 19:1358023
Contradictions? [447 words]SupercrusaderOct 2, 2006 15:2658023
Al lah is not God [261 words]donvanSep 27, 2006 17:0257925
was kaaba really built by Abraham the father of Isaac [107 words]MautandOct 21, 2008 08:4857925
The blind men and the elephant [81 words]PJSep 27, 2006 16:2757921
Bravo! [30 words]Regan HuffmanSep 30, 2006 00:1757921
PJ, Great poem, but? [133 words]InfidelSep 30, 2006 19:3757921
The elephant at DanielPipes.org [136 words]PJSep 30, 2006 20:4557921
To PJ about the blind men and the elephant [481 words]Lactantius Jr.Nov 25, 2006 17:2657921
To Lactantius-- on that elephant story [54 words]PJNov 30, 2006 09:2257921
"Whoever humbles himself will be exalted" Luke 14:11 [73 words]Lactantius Jr.Dec 1, 2006 04:3557921
Sins of the God Allah since 622 A.D. [448 words]Lujack SkylarkMay 4, 2007 14:0257921
It depends on definition [346 words]
w/response from Daniel Pipes
ShepardSep 27, 2006 13:1057891
Christ is faultless [143 words]Jane WestSep 27, 2006 11:3157872
Is allah GOD? [4 words]Dale EhrgottSep 26, 2006 23:1557792
Truth is not hate [60 words]bperiwinkleSep 26, 2006 20:5257777
Definitely not God [254 words]Char TierneySep 26, 2006 20:5257776
Right you are [23 words]OwenSep 30, 2006 15:2357776
The god of Islam... [353 words]SoundSep 26, 2006 12:5657681
The Concept of God [162 words]Kelvan Kam Kay VenSep 27, 2006 16:2557681
"Allah" Is The Same One God [670 words]HamiltonSep 27, 2006 16:4357681
Spirituality in Islam? [114 words]Henrik Ræder ClausenSep 28, 2006 07:4657681
Hadith Qudsi- Henrik Ræder Clausen [139 words]zzazzeefrazzeeSep 28, 2006 22:3357681
For Hamilton: Who is really Allah? [95 words]dhimmi no moreSep 30, 2006 17:5657681
dhimmi no more [4 words]Ibrahim AliMay 15, 2007 11:4757681
For our dear Ibrahim Ali and Who is really Allah [27 words]dhimmi no moreMay 15, 2007 16:5057681
dhimmi no more [644 words]Ibrahim AliMay 17, 2007 12:1057681
Hubal revisited [115 words]dhimmi no moreMay 17, 2007 19:2357681
dhimmi no more [8 words]Ibrahim AliMay 20, 2007 09:4757681
Oh really? [170 words]dhimmi no moreMay 22, 2007 06:5657681
dhimmi no more [16 words]Ibrahim AliMay 29, 2007 14:5557681
Our dear Ibrahim Ali al-tablighee and You ain't no historian [450 words]dhimmi no moreMay 30, 2007 07:3557681
dhimmi [344 words]Ibrahim AliJun 5, 2007 09:0957681
Real gems from our wannabe historian Ibrahim Ali (sic) [1147 words]dhimmi no moreJun 5, 2007 18:3757681
muslimawreness web site? [34 words]dhimmi no moreJun 5, 2007 18:4957681
So I will give you one more chance [31 words]dhimmi no moreJun 5, 2007 18:5457681
the inscriptions and our dear MSM Saifallah the wannabe historian You cannot even read Arabic [182 words]dhimmi no moreJun 5, 2007 20:2857681
For our dear sohail rabina yusahil 3alayhu [19 words]dhimmi no moreJun 5, 2007 20:3057681
For Sohail and your credibility is on the line and Allah and Hubal [480 words]dhimmi no moreJun 6, 2007 07:0557681
The word for today is chutzpah, Spartans v. Muslims and the oral transmission of history [552 words]dhimmi no moreJun 7, 2007 06:5057681
Here is a challenge for Sohail aka whatever [72 words]dhimmi no moreJun 7, 2007 07:3357681
Another gem form our dear Sohail al-tablighee [36 words]dhimmi no moreJun 7, 2007 07:3757681
Allah is jesus god [43 words]mulauJan 4, 2010 03:0057681
Another victim of not just islamic imperialism but also of poor islamic education [261 words]dhimmi no moreJan 5, 2010 18:5457681
Allah is not the God of Christians and Jews [157 words]James BigaSep 26, 2006 12:2957676
In vain [105 words]VijaySep 26, 2006 05:1857597
Not the Christian God, certainly [273 words]Henrik R ClausenSep 26, 2006 01:2057573
Allah is not God! [108 words]Mr. CashSep 25, 2006 23:1757559
allah is god [89 words]Jeff PSep 27, 2006 08:5857559
Allah is god but not God [64 words]Mr. CashSep 27, 2006 20:4357559
The God of the Temple Mount [158 words]Gary CobbOct 7, 2007 22:1157559
Ok...well, we are in Agreement [92 words]JeffOct 8, 2007 19:4157559
Do the math !!! [217 words]dfwhite19438Apr 18, 2008 21:0957559
wow...you must have a lot of anger [157 words]JeffApr 20, 2008 15:0057559
You made my point !! [235 words]dfwhite19438Apr 21, 2008 03:0257559
Why do you have so much anger? [48 words]JeffPApr 21, 2008 18:4457559
Allah is not the God of the Bible [559 words]John PaulSep 25, 2006 22:4557551
Let's agree to disagree [131 words]zzaazzeefrazzeeSep 26, 2006 16:0457551
What on Earth is "truthmongering?" [444 words]John PaulSep 26, 2006 18:4857551
Could It Be That President Bush Has To Be Careful What He Says? [146 words]AnneMSep 27, 2006 12:1157551
different views, or PREJUDICE? [672 words]zzazzeefrazzeeSep 27, 2006 21:2557551
Allah and the black stone [72 words]Xavier RomeroSep 28, 2006 09:4957551
There is Liberty [147 words]bperiwinkleSep 28, 2006 23:4457551
Worshipping a man? [99 words]Ibn SinaSep 29, 2006 12:3957551
sectarian hate??? [181 words]jeff pSep 29, 2006 13:5357551
No Other Name [414 words]bperiwinkleSep 30, 2006 12:1557551
2Rituals at Kaaba idolatrous [52 words]Xavier_RomeroSep 30, 2006 22:4557551
Christian "confidence" is still prejudice. You are certainly free to express it, but I'm also free to call it like I see it! [606 words]zzazzeefrazzeeNov 15, 2006 22:5357551
Would it be a surprise to you if there were Muslims who supported Bush? [329 words]zzazzeefrazzeeNov 15, 2006 23:2157551
1The Truth [745 words]Humble ServantNov 16, 2006 14:3157551
You're just wrong. [21 words]bperiwinkleNov 16, 2006 21:2857551
Sorry, but I disagree with ALL religious absolutists, period. [231 words]zzazzeefrazzeeNov 17, 2006 23:2957551
Sorry, but I disagree with ALL religious absolutists, period. [1745 words]zzazzeefrazzeeNov 17, 2006 23:3157551
1a word to my brother [670 words]slave of GodFeb 13, 2007 11:1757551
Question? [73 words]DasFeb 18, 2007 06:4757551
Please choose life Abd Allah [3680 words]Lactantius JrMar 27, 2007 17:1657551
Lactantius Jr [2584 words]SohailApr 3, 2007 10:1157551
"Please choose your address Sohail" [4603 words]Lactantius Jr.Apr 5, 2007 15:0457551
Lactantius Jr [3712 words]SohailMay 9, 2007 11:1457551
"Chose your address Sohail" [8128 words]Lactantius Jr.May 25, 2007 12:2757551
Lactantius Jr [1482 words]SohailJun 5, 2007 09:4957551
For Ibrahim Ali aka Sohail It seems that the Qur'an really says that Jesus is indeed God albeit biidhin Allah [135 words]dhimmi no moreJun 5, 2007 19:0457551
"better late than never" [1897 words]Lactantius Jr.Aug 9, 2007 17:3057551
1naive ideas about islam [244 words]G.VishvasMay 27, 2008 09:2957551
The coming evangelical collapse [136 words]FINIOUSAug 6, 2009 12:4457551

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