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Influence of Arab-Muslim science on Western science

Reader comment on item: Ankara at War
in response to reader comment: Revisiting al-Tabari and Quranic dsasters

Submitted by Hava Bishoy (United States), Nov 13, 2012 at 13:56

[Taken from: User:Saffa mubarak From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 19th and 20th Century reform efforts by muslims: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/User:Saffa_mubarak- ed]

In the West, even as 8th century Dark Age Europe began to coalesce around a newborn fear of Arab and Muslim religious and military power, Europe was drawn to the superior technology, social institutions, and cultural expressions of the Arab-Muslim world. The first recorded transfer of Arab technology to the Europeans was at the Battle of Tours in 732, where Europeans were first introduced to Arab armoured knights on horseback, metal stirrups, and a fully-developed cavalry. The Europeans under Charles Martel won that encounter through cunning and good luck, and they were quick to steal the armour and stirrups off the dead Arabs.

Within five years, Charles had created Europe's first cavalry force, and the armoured knight on horseback, introduced by the Arabs, would become a fixture of European warfare, literature, and mythology for another 500 years. Even while such a committed Islamophobe as Charlemagne was fighting to push the Umayyads and Arabs south of the Pyrenees in Spain, he was entranced with the power and style of Caliph Harun Al Rashid in Baghdad, and struck up a long-distance correspondence. Charlemagne's interest was selfish - he wanted to rule as nobly as Harun did, over a state as rich and powerful as Harun had. But that would be out of the question for any European for another 700 years. Charlemagne even tried to arrange several summit meetings with Harun, which never occurred, in part because Harun was very busy and saw little benefit in meeting the ruler of a poor and backward region that had little to offer other than brave warriors. But the two leaders exchanged gifts, and a high level tradition of cross-cultural communication was begun. Even the Byzantine Empire, which suffered 800 years of losing battles with the Arabs and Turks, took note of the intellectual developments to its south, and there was a continuing exchange of ideas.

But it was not until the late 900s that the full power of the centuries of Arab-Muslim invention would begin to filter north in a bigger way. Al Andalus was a major transfer point, because even before the fall of the Umayyads, it was a place of great cultural mingling. An increasing stream of medieval European visitors would travel south to gawk at the Umayyad streetlamps, cities, libraries, hospitals, palaces and gardens that had been created under Arab-Muslim rule. While the European religious ambivalence or distrust was always present, the attraction to a more sophisticated culture was just as powerful. One of the first influential Europeans to be drawn to the intellectual power of the Arabs was a French Christian monk, Gerbert of Aurillac, who became Pope Sylvester II in 999. Not only was he the first Frenchman to lead the Roman Church, he was the first Christian patriarch who was deeply influenced by and sympathetic to the cultural and intellectual advances made by Arabs and Muslims. When Gerbert was a young monk, he studied under the direction of Atto, Bishop of Vich, north of Barcelona. Bishop Atto was part of a diplomatic delegation sent to Cordoba. While there Atto met with Umayyad ruler Al Hakim ll. Atto had become infatuated with the Islamic society in Cordoba and returned to Barcelona with great respect for the neighbour civilisation. Gerbert insisted that Bishop Atto tell him about the Andalusian leaders who were more interested in ideas than military strength. Gerbert was fascinated by the stories of the Mozarab Christian bishops and judges who were culturally Arabic, and were as well-versed in mathematics and science as the academicians of the Islamic universities. This sparked Gerbert's veneration for the Arabs and his passion for mathematics and astronomy.

When Gerbert became Pope Sylvester, he immediately introduced Arabic numerals into the Church, replacing the unwieldy Roman numerals. He also adopted the Cordoban style of liberal arts education, which would later greatly influence European and North American educational styles. He also introduced Arab astronomy to the Church, as well as other Arab intellectual advances. Though it would take centuries for these papal decisions to reach deep into European culture (which until the 1200s remained largely feudal and rural) they provided the basis for future intellectual reform and innovation, culminating in the Renaissance. And more importantly, they gave the green light to a new European tradition of welcoming Arab and Muslim science and technology that would last 500 years. One early ambassador of Arab-Muslim science was Constantine the African, a Tunisian who travelled to Europe's first medical school at Salerno, Italy, in 1077 and translated key Arabic medical texts into Latin. The real flood of Arab and Muslim knowledge northward would not come for another 50 years, when the relentless work of a group of Catholic and Jewish translators working in Spain would begin to bring the works of Jabir Ibn Hayyan, Al Khwarizmi, Al Razi, Ibn Sina, Al Zahrawi, Ibn Al Haytham, Al Jazari, and many others into Latin. Although by 1150 the European languages had already begun to differentiate into the Romance and Germanic tongues that we know today, Latin was the language of the Church and of scholarship.

The Church remained the most important patron and repository of European scientific and scholarly thinking until the Renaissance and the Reformation. By no coincidence, nearly all the Christian translators were Catholic monks of various orders, while most of the Jewish translators were also religious scholars. Three pre-eminent Catholic translators of Arab manuscripts included Gerard of Cremona (an Italian), and two Englishmen, Robert of Chester and Adelard of Bath. These three accounted for an astonishing share of translated documents. In many ways, they were replicating the same process of translation of knowledge that the great translators like Hunayn Ibn Ishaq had done at the House of Wisdom 350 years earlier in Baghdad. But the European process would be somewhat slower and more decentralised, simply because there was no single institution like the House of Wisdom or a single leader like the caliph to patronise these activities. Instead, there were many smaller courts and centres, in Spanish cities such as Barcelona, Leon, Seville, Segovia, and Toledo. They were usually headed by a king who strongly encouraged scholarship. More often than not, the kings were Catholic who, though partisan on the subject of faith, were eager to assimilate the advanced thinking of the Arabs and Muslims. The actual process of translation was often quite haphazard. Some of the monks had to learn Arabic even as they were doing the actual translation. Often they would take an Arab word for which they could not find a counterpart in Latin, and would create a Latinised but phonetically Arab term, like 'arithmetic' or 'algebra'. Sometimes the Catholics would use trilingual Jewish scholars, who would translate the Arabic into vernacular Spanish, and then recite them aloud in Spanish so the monks could then render them into Latin. The monks also sought to Latinise the unfamiliar names of the Arabs and Muslims, so Ibn Sina became Avicenna, Ibn Al Haytham became Alhazen, Ibn Rushd became Averroes,

Al Zahrawi became Albucasis, Jabir became Geber, and so on. Robert of Chester is best remembered for his translations of Al Khwarizmi, including the Liber Algebrae et Almucabla, or the Compendius Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing, and the masterwork on the algorithm, Algoritmi del numero Indorum, or Al Khwarizimi on the Hindu Art of Reckoning. Robert did most of his work at Segovia in Spain, under the patronage of the Catholic ruler Ferdinand I. Gerard of Cremona emigrated from Italy to Toledo for the express purpose of translating Arab knowledge into Latin. He is credited with more than 70 key translations from mathematics, medicine, and other disciplines including Ptolemy's Almagest, Euclid's Geometry, and key works by Al Kindi, Al Khwarizmi, the Banu Musa, Al Zarqali, and many others.

His translations included Al Khwarizmi's On Algebra and Almucabala, Al Kindi's On Optics, Al Farghani's On Elements of Astronomy on the Celestial Motions, Al Farabi's On the Classification of the Sciences, the chemical and medical works of Al Razi, the mathematical and astronomical works of Thabit Ibn Qurra and Hunayn Ibn Ishaq, and Ibn Al Haytham (including the Book of Optics). Other important translators included Plato of Tivoli, Hermann of Carinthia, Rudolf of Bruges, Michael Scot, and Philip of Tripoli, and in Spain, Dominicus Gondisalvi, and Hugh of Santalla. Some of the great Spanish Jewish translators included Petrus Alphonsi, Abraham ben Ezra, John of Seville, and Savasorda. Though the first flood of translation was to come in the 12th century, this does not mean it ended then. In fact, it would continue into the 18th century, both with re-translations of old works and original translation of newly discovered works by Arabs and other Muslims that continued to flow north until the 1700s. For example, the great Arab physician Al Nafis worked in Cairo at the Al Mansuri Hospital in the early 1200s. There he made the earthshaking discovery that, contrary to what Galen had taught, blood did not circulate from one side of the heart to the other through tiny passages, but instead traveled from the right chamber to the lungs, where it mixed with oxygen and then travelled to the left chamber. His work was apparently unknown to Europeans until 1547 when Andrea Alpago of Belluno, Italy, made the first known translation. The English court physician William Harvey, who studied at the University of Padua some decades after the appearance of this translation, then articulated the first European understanding of blood's circulation through the body, for which Western history credits him as the discoverer.

Although it is possible that his discovery was coincidental and had nothing to do with Al Nafis' work, it also seems possible that Harvey was exposed to the Arab ideas in one form or another while in Italy. Translation of key Arab documents in itself was not enough to spur the phenomenal explosion of European knowledge that would come after 1400. Quite often, the translated Arab documents conveyed practices and procedures (particularly in medicine) that could not be put to use in Europe until centuries later. That is because the intellectual, economic and social climate and infrastructure simply did not yet exist in Europe to take advantage of the new ideas. An example of the northward and westward flow of knowledge was the great Persian Muslim astronomer and mathematician Nasir Al Din Al Tusi (1201 - 1274), who invented his mathematical theorem, the Tusi Couple, an ingenious formula that resolves linear motion into the sum of two circular motions. His formula was designed to correct the errors in Ptolemy's earth-centred system, but it would have much more use for future astronomers. He was translated into Byzantine Greek towards the beginning of the 14th century, only to be used later by Copernicus and others in Renaissance Europe. Arab-Muslim thinkers translated into Latin during the 12th century include Al Battani, Al Razi and Ibn Sina, Ibn Rushd/Averroes, Thabit ibn Qurra, Al Farabi, Al Farghani, Hunayn Ibn Ishaq, and his nephew Hubaysh Ibn al Hasan, Al Kindi, Abu Al Qasim (including the Al Tasrif), and Al Fazari's Great Sindhind based on the works of 7th century Indian genius Brahmagupta who also inspired Al Khwarizmi.

Add to that the works of astronomer Al Majriti, astronomer Al Bitruji (including On the Motions of the Heavens), Al Majusi's medical encyclopaedia The Complete Book of the Medical Art, the works of Musa Bin Maymun (Maimonides), and the chemical works of Jabir/Geber. In the early 1200s, one Mark of Toledo translated the Qur'an and assorted medical texts. Although bits and pieces of Arab mathematical genius had been coming north since the middle 1100s, Fibonacci of Italy is credited with presenting the first complete European account of the Hindu-Arabic numeral system in 1202. The revisions to Ptolemy's model made by Al Battani and Ibn Rushd are believed to have had later influence on the Copernican sun-centred model. Most impressively, Al Kindi's 9th century law of terrestrial gravity is believed to have influenced Robert Hooke's 17th century law of celestial gravity, which inspired Newton's 17th century law of gravitation. European translations of the 11th, 12th, and 13th century algebraic and geometrical works of Ibn Al Haytham, Omar Khayyám, and Al Tusi were later influential in the development of modern non-Euclidean geometry. Edward Pococke brought Ibn Tufail into Latin, while Simon Ockley brought his work into English, which some sources say helped encourage the coming European scientific revolution. Mediaeval European chemistry owes its origins as much as anyone to the Arab father of chemistry, Jabir Ibn Hayyan, or Geber. His chemical and alchemical works were translated into Latin around the 12th century and became standard texts for European alchemists. These include the Kitab al-Kimya (titled Book of the Composition of Alchemy in Europe), translated by Robert of Chester in 1144, and the Kitab al-Sab'een, translated by Gerard of Cremona sometime before 1187. Marcelin Berthelot translated some of Jabir's books under the mysterious titles Book of the Kingdom, Book of the Balances, and Book of Eastern Mercury.

Several Arabic terms introduced by Jabir, such as alkali, found their way into various European languages and thus became part of the Western scientific vocabulary. In the medical field, hospitals began as bimaristans in the Islamic world and later spread to Europe during the Crusades, when returning Crusaders brought back some of the modern concepts they had seen in the East. Les Quinze-vingt, Paris's first hospital, was founded by Louis IX after his return from the Crusades in the mid 1200s. Ibn Sina's Canon of Medicine remained a standard medical textbook in Europe until the early modern period, and during the 15th and 16th centuries the Canon was published more than 35 times. Through the Canon, Europeans were first introduced to the contagious nature of infectious diseases, quarantine, experimental medicine, and clinical trials. Ibn Sina's Book of Healing became another popular textbook in Europe. Al Razi's Comprehensive Book of Medicine, with its introduction of measles and smallpox, was also influential in Europe. One of the most powerful cases of cross-cultural scientific transmission came in the budding fields of physics and optics, led by the visionary Ibn Al Haytham. He became known to the mediaeval Europeans as Alhazen, and he was as influential in European optics as was Al Khwarizmi in higher mathematics. Ibn al-Haytham's Book of Optics, written in 1021, initiated a revolution in optics and visual perception, and introduced the earliest and most detailed articulation of the modern experimental scientific method.

The Book of Optics is considered by some to be as important as Isaac Newton's Principia Mathematica. In Latin, it influenced the later works of Europeans like Roger Bacon, Leonardo Da Vinci, Descartes, Kepler, Galileo, and Newton. The Book of Optics would help enable the development of many key optical technologies, like eyeglasses, cameras, telescopes and microscopes. In Christian theological debate, John Wycliffe, one of the fathers of the Protestant Reformation, referred to Ibn Al Haytham in discussing the seven deadly sins as distortions in mirrors analysed by the Cairo thinker. In literature, The Book of Optics is mentioned in Guillaume de Lorris' Roman de la Rose and Chaucer's Canterbury Tales. In art, some scholars now argue that the Book of Optics laid the foundations for the linear perspective technique and the use of optical aids in Renaissance art, as in the Hockney-Falco thesis. According to experts, the theories of motion in Islamic physics developed by Ibn Sina and others helped shape Jean Buridan's theory of impetus, the ancestor of the inertia and momentum concepts, and the work of Galileo on classical mechanics.


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Title Commenter Date Thread
Missing The Ghost - Hiding in America's Protection!!! [36 words]Donald JohnsonNov 11, 2012 09:25200476
2The Odd of Turkish [116 words]AngelOct 31, 2012 16:22200205
great point Angel [50 words]stanley bNov 1, 2012 17:38200205
You didnt understand Palestine issue [15 words]Bary SoetoroNov 1, 2012 20:48200205
The Odd of Turkish [58 words]AngelNov 13, 2012 18:32200205
1George Bush was doing the same. . . . [10 words]Amin RiazOct 25, 2012 21:48200067
3"Ankara stood with Washington" ... just like a dope pusher stood with a drug addict ! (full version) [601 words]IanusOct 21, 2012 10:17199954
3hypocrisy [100 words]
w/response from Daniel Pipes
pentagram83Oct 21, 2012 05:50199949
1Sunni Turks [113 words]Lujack SkylarkOct 18, 2012 23:31199918
4Washington's war, not Anakara's [732 words]IanusOct 18, 2012 16:51199913
1Washington's war , not Ankara's (addendum) [952 words]IanusOct 19, 2012 02:57199913
disagreed [22 words]Vugar SeidovOct 18, 2012 04:17199905
3Turkey has finally become Islamist [120 words]GovindOct 18, 2012 03:07199904
2Turkey going Islamist and the US not supporting it ? Hard to believe ! [172 words]IanusOct 19, 2012 03:24199904
1Missed Points [84 words]Amin RiazOct 26, 2012 18:29199904
4The real challenge for Islam [116 words]GovindOct 27, 2012 01:16199904
6"If all humanity were wiped out except for 2 Islamics, they would be forced to hate each other, and one would finally kill the other." [100 words]IanusOct 27, 2012 23:45199904
Bad Aim [38 words]Amin RiazOct 28, 2012 00:23199904
4If all humanity ... ( full post ? ) [518 words]IanusOct 29, 2012 03:32199904
Turkey vs. Syria [58 words]StasOct 18, 2012 00:03199900
3The US-Sunni axis [261 words]IanusOct 26, 2012 02:15199900
Time to leave the past and focus on the future, Ianus [329 words]StasOct 26, 2012 17:04199900
4You can ignore the past but never leave it ! [958 words]IanusOct 26, 2012 19:01199900
Here it is [103 words]
w/response from Daniel Pipes
Nazim CairoOct 17, 2012 14:27199884
Turkish responce [121 words]Nazim CairoOct 17, 2012 20:23199884
1response [52 words]roger spleenOct 20, 2012 04:05199884
response to Roger [113 words]Nazim CairoOct 21, 2012 05:33199884
2response to to mr. cairo [88 words]roger spleenOct 21, 2012 23:52199884
How about Turkish terrorists and supporters of terrorists like Erdogan ? [2 words]IanusOct 22, 2012 18:34199884
1How about Turkish terrorists and supporters of terrorists like Erdogan ? (complete post) [51 words]IanusOct 24, 2012 14:47199884
answer to Roger. [56 words]Nazim CairoOct 24, 2012 17:47199884
5How about Turkish terrorists and supporters of terrorists like Erdogan ? (a third attempt) [552 words]IanusOct 25, 2012 06:19199884
1to nazim cairo [40 words]roger spleenOct 25, 2012 10:32199884
1An Israeli spy bird exposed by Turks or "Erdogan has a Mossad transmitter implanted you know where." [310 words]IanusOct 26, 2012 10:08199884
1Turks against war [182 words]MozereOct 17, 2012 08:48199877
1Muslim conflicts belong to Muslim nations. [122 words]rodney allsworthOct 17, 2012 00:54199870
6Turkish nationalism and Islamism [158 words]KhachkarianOct 16, 2012 20:58199866
should stay completely away ? [22 words]bernardOct 16, 2012 20:46199865
8Turks as usually "saving people" by "killing people" [229 words]IanusOct 18, 2012 01:41199865
Good article [174 words]Kepha HorOct 16, 2012 19:46199864
7Turkey the Troian Horse [43 words]isaOct 16, 2012 17:02199861
Deep prejudices [66 words]Amin RiazOct 27, 2012 02:06199861
3the role of Turkey [72 words]isaOct 27, 2012 19:47199861
Strange and stranger [127 words]Amin RiazOct 28, 2012 00:19199861
12The crimes of Turkey [399 words]dhimmi no moreOct 28, 2012 13:49199861
The Train Wreck [198 words]Amin RiazOct 28, 2012 19:49199861
3Guide to the perplexed! Our dear Amin that is [318 words]dhimmi no moreOct 29, 2012 07:02199861
Oh the confused one! [285 words]Amin RiazOct 29, 2012 17:14199861
5The Turks and their crimes against humanity [362 words]dhimmi no moreOct 30, 2012 07:19199861
2Guide to the perplexed! Our dear Amin that is part two [270 words]dhimmi no moreOct 30, 2012 08:42199861
6And speaking of train wrecks! [267 words]dhimmi no moreOct 30, 2012 13:11199861
Feeding the bottomless pit [154 words]Amin RiazOct 31, 2012 14:18199861
Strange and stranger II [164 words]Amin RiazOct 31, 2012 14:26199861
2Took pity on Dhimmi [28 words]Bary SoetoroNov 1, 2012 08:02199861
Pg 99 of Al Mawrid and pg 426 of Hans Wehr [337 words]Amin RiazNov 1, 2012 21:02199861
The Orthodox Christians and the crimes against humanity [259 words]MozereNov 2, 2012 05:41199861
4Guide to the perplexed! Our dear Amin that is part three [181 words]dhimmi no moreNov 3, 2012 08:10199861
2Islam is the religion of the arabs only [67 words]dhimmi no moreNov 3, 2012 08:14199861
2Guide to the perplexed! Our dear Amin that is part four [90 words]dhimmi no moreNov 3, 2012 08:19199861
1And speaking of strange and stranger and atrocious Arabic by wannabe Arabs [116 words]dhimmi no moreNov 3, 2012 08:27199861
how do you explained this Mr. No more [22 words]bary soetoroNov 3, 2012 23:42199861
2Half knowledge and the perplexed [212 words]dhimmi no moreNov 4, 2012 09:59199861
3The bizarre and the absurd and justifying crimes against humanity [545 words]dhimmi no moreNov 4, 2012 10:18199861
1And speaking of pits! [239 words]dhimmi no moreNov 4, 2012 10:39199861
Pg 99 of Al Mawrid and pg 426 of Hans Wehr [221 words]Amin RiazNov 4, 2012 13:04199861
1From Fiction & Faction to the Factual [803 words]Amin RiazNov 4, 2012 13:58199861
A serious allergy of "Truth" [126 words]Amin RiazNov 4, 2012 14:03199861
Finally! Reluctant Admittance [656 words]Amin RiazNov 5, 2012 04:12199861
3Lying is a free choice by the liar, Mozere. [422 words]IanusNov 5, 2012 17:04199861
1Atrocious Arabic by wannabe Arab and tablighee twists and turns [89 words]dhimmi no moreNov 7, 2012 06:23199861
1Our dear Mr B is saying that the Bible is not a corrupted book! I smell riots and fatwas! [189 words]dhimmi no moreNov 7, 2012 06:31199861
2Trains wrecks revisited [109 words]dhimmi no moreNov 7, 2012 06:53199861
1Revisiting al-Tabari and Quranic dsasters [102 words]dhimmi no moreNov 7, 2012 07:08199861
islam is the religion of the arabs only [23 words]dhimmi no moreNov 7, 2012 07:11199861
Argument from our dear PP! What a disaster [277 words]dhimmi no moreNov 7, 2012 07:32199861
1Teaching Arabic to wannabe Arabs [184 words]dhimmi no moreNov 7, 2012 07:40199861
2Half knowledge and the perplexed part two [159 words]dhimmi no moreNov 7, 2012 08:09199861
1More guide to the perplexed! Our dear Amin that is [114 words]dhimmi no moreNov 7, 2012 09:14199861
3Teaching Arabic to the perplexed our dear Amin that is [290 words]dhimmi no moreNov 7, 2012 12:55199861
3Revisiting Quranic disasters this time the word bism and al-Tabari [1127 words]dhimmi no moreNov 7, 2012 13:47199861
Change your mind Mr. No more [53 words]B. SoetoroNov 7, 2012 18:13199861
... Problems? [340 words]Amin RiazNov 7, 2012 19:07199861
1Laughing Openly [381 words]Amin RiazNov 7, 2012 19:27199861
Revival of old Fabrications 1 [1816 words]Amin RiazNov 8, 2012 20:37199861
1Wrapping up [111 words]Amin RiazNov 8, 2012 20:43199861
1Maybe getting somewhere . . . [162 words]Amin RiazNov 8, 2012 20:49199861
1Oh how distracting! [33 words]Amin RiazNov 8, 2012 20:52199861
1Height of Stupidity! [330 words]Amin RiazNov 8, 2012 21:04199861
1Another source against you! [696 words]Amin RiazNov 8, 2012 21:30199861
1Game over. [23 words]Amin RiazNov 8, 2012 21:31199861
1Guiding the perplexed again! [133 words]dhimmi no moreNov 10, 2012 07:10199861
2And speaking of tablighee stupidity [289 words]dhimmi no moreNov 10, 2012 08:08199861
1Our dear Amin is quoting an English language dictionary as a reference for the meaning of an Arabic word! Go figure [167 words]dhimmi no moreNov 10, 2012 09:29199861
1And speaking of strange and stranger and atrocious Arabic by wannabe Arabs [55 words]dhimmi no moreNov 10, 2012 09:44199861
3Tablighee bakhwas [610 words]dhimmi no moreNov 10, 2012 10:15199861
2More Komiddya islamiyya [194 words]dhimmi no moreNov 10, 2012 11:33199861
1Avoidance & Lies [323 words]Amin RiazNov 10, 2012 18:01199861
1A bad case of regurgitation [613 words]Amin RiazNov 10, 2012 18:25199861
1Treatment? [153 words]Amin RiazNov 10, 2012 18:30199861
1Taking leave of senses. [311 words]Amin RiazNov 10, 2012 18:36199861
3The crimes of the Turks against humanity revisited [540 words]dhimmi no moreNov 11, 2012 16:32199861
1Avoidance ... 2 [750 words]Amin RiazNov 11, 2012 19:51199861
1Even more Fabrications [376 words]Amin RiazNov 11, 2012 20:07199861
1Influence of Arab-Muslim science on Western science [2607 words]Hava BishoyNov 13, 2012 13:56199861
1Revisiting old Quranic disaster and the word bishm [156 words]dhimmi no moreNov 14, 2012 12:05199861
1Mistakes and foreign words in the book of Allah [129 words]dhimmi no moreNov 14, 2012 12:24199861
Guiding the perplexed again! and again! [198 words]dhimmi no moreNov 14, 2012 12:50199861
It is OK to be a liar in islam [126 words]dhimmi no moreNov 14, 2012 12:59199861
Tablighee bakhwas part two [21 words]dhimmi no moreNov 14, 2012 13:08199861
1How about al-Buraq! [24 words]dhimmi no moreNov 14, 2012 13:10199861
Tablighee nonsense [118 words]dhimmi no moreNov 14, 2012 13:15199861
Guiding the perplexed with dictionaries [75 words]dhimmi no moreNov 14, 2012 13:23199861
1Our dear Amin is quoting an English language dictionary as a reference for the meaning of an Arabic word! Go figure [187 words]dhimmi no moreNov 14, 2012 13:33199861
1Guiding al-ha'er aka our dear Amin [158 words]dhimmi no moreNov 14, 2012 13:52199861
1Old Quranic disasters revisited [138 words]dhimmi no moreNov 14, 2012 14:28199861
Old nonsense - Again! [290 words]Amin RiazNov 14, 2012 20:06199861
Revival of old Fairytales [142 words]Amin RiazNov 14, 2012 20:11199861
Figment of a psychotic imagination, perhaps? [220 words]Amin RiazNov 14, 2012 20:18199861
A Slippery Slope! [150 words]Amin RiazNov 14, 2012 20:24199861
Ouch! Oh, it must be embarrassing! [335 words]Amin RiazNov 14, 2012 20:35199861
Easy Exposition [128 words]Amin RiazNov 14, 2012 20:39199861
A guide to Fiction [260 words]Amin RiazNov 14, 2012 21:01199861
Blowing away Nonsense! [389 words]Amin RiazNov 14, 2012 21:17199861
Sail-less Ship? [595 words]Amin RiazNov 14, 2012 21:48199861
1The Quranic disaster BISM [198 words]dhimmi no moreNov 15, 2012 07:22199861
And speaking of slippery slopes! It seems that it is OK to be a liar in islam [42 words]dhimmi no moreNov 15, 2012 08:29199861
Guide to the perplexed! and the lazy [72 words]dhimmi no moreNov 15, 2012 08:41199861
1And speaking of old fairytales and lost tablighees [212 words]dhimmi no moreNov 15, 2012 08:57199861
1Helping the perplexed again! More disasters! [359 words]dhimmi no moreNov 16, 2012 08:45199861
1Our dear Amin needs to stick to Urdu [131 words]dhimmi no moreNov 16, 2012 09:06199861
1Helping the perplexed again! More disasters! [391 words]dhimmi no moreNov 16, 2012 09:23199861
1The Quranic disaster In Hadhan lasahiran revisited! part one! [524 words]dhimmi no moreNov 16, 2012 09:56199861
And speaking of sail-less ships and teaching wannabe Arabs how to use an Arabic or a Syriac dictionary [408 words]dhimmi no moreNov 16, 2012 11:11199861
More ignorance [172 words]dhimmi no moreNov 16, 2012 11:33199861
Oh Dear, Oh Dear [78 words]Amin RiazNov 17, 2012 21:30199861
Inability to answer [675 words]Amin RiazNov 17, 2012 21:50199861
More strange fabrications! [819 words]Amin RiazNov 18, 2012 15:22199861
More admittance that I am right! Oh Yeah! [331 words]Amin RiazNov 18, 2012 15:31199861
2Our dear Hava Bishoy is not aware that Maimonides was Jewish but this is what happens then one cut and paste without reading what the text says [320 words]dhimmi no moreNov 19, 2012 15:38199861
3Islamic science? Or Islamic gobbledygook? [249 words]dhimmi no moreNov 19, 2012 15:53199861
Dhimmi no more understanding is sinusoid like seminiferous tubules [57 words]Hava BishoyNov 20, 2012 12:00199861
Distortion of perception [43 words]Ghislaine BelangerNov 20, 2012 12:04199861
1Our dear Hava and islamic gobbledygook [321 words]dhimmi no moreNov 21, 2012 07:42199861
Is the earth flat as it says in the Qur'an [15 words]dhimmi no moreNov 21, 2012 07:44199861
Quranic disaster 20:63 revisited [21 words]dhimmi no moreNov 21, 2012 07:46199861
1More ignorance [66 words]dhimmi no moreNov 21, 2012 07:58199861
Guiding the perplexed again! [65 words]dhimmi no moreNov 21, 2012 08:04199861
1The rule of the Arabs in their only civiiaztion was marginal at best [265 words]dhimmi no moreNov 21, 2012 11:20199861
The Quranic geocentric universe! What a disaster [170 words]dhimmi no moreNov 21, 2012 11:50199861
2More Islamic gobbledygook I mean Islamic science! [384 words]dhimmi no moreNov 22, 2012 12:52199861
Our dear dhimmi no more and delusion [82 words]Fair dhimmiaNov 22, 2012 15:41199861
2More islamic gems from our dear Hava and his multiple personalites [377 words]dhimmi no moreNov 22, 2012 16:44199861
2Another victim of Arabian imperialism and Islam [411 words]dhimmi no moreNov 23, 2012 07:44199861
2The Quranic word al-irhab or terrorism and you will find it in Q8:60 [112 words]dhimmi no moreNov 23, 2012 08:31199861
1Islamic science? Or Islamic gobbledygook? and great Muslim inventions the likes of al-Buraq! [149 words]dhimmi no moreNov 23, 2012 15:46199861
3The fathers of Algebra were a Greek pagan Diophantes and an Indian pagan Aryabhata and not al-Khwazirmi as you claim [308 words]dhimmi no moreNov 23, 2012 16:08199861
2Hamza Wasli is Pakistani Arabic and the Quranic disaster in hadhan lasahiran part two [109 words]dhimmi no moreNov 26, 2012 11:01199861
Hoist with his own petard [16 words]C KalotarisOct 16, 2012 14:19199858

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