2 readers online now  |  69 million page views


Reader comment on item: "At War with Islamic Fascists"
in response to reader comment: I think the Muslims extremists forgot who ordered and funded the Crusades

Submitted by Angel B. (United States), Nov 6, 2006 at 13:41

Dear Jenny,

Just some info in the spirit of charity so that you understand the Crusades a bit more indepth.

It has been customary to describe the Crusades as eight in number:

In reality the Crusades continued until the end of the seventeenth century, the crusade of Lepanto occurring in 1571 (big miracle associated with this one, read about it, its really interesting).

The origin of the Crusades is directly traceable to the moral and political condition of Western Christendom in the eleventh century. At that time Europe was divided into numerous states whose sovereigns were absorbed in tedious and petty territorial disputes while the emperor, in theory the temporal head of Christendom, was wasting his strength in the quarrel over Investitures. The popes alone had maintained a just estimate of Christian unity; they realized to what extent the interests of Europe were threatened by the Byzantine Empire and the Mohammedan tribes, and they alone had a foreign policy whose traditions were formed under Leo IX and Gregory VII. The reform effected in the Church and the papacy through the influence of the monks of Cluny had increased the prestige of the Roman pontiff in the eyes of all Christian nations; hence none but the pope could inaugurate the international movement that culminated in the Crusades. But despite his eminent authority the pope could never have persuaded the Western peoples to arm themselves for the conquest of the Holy Land had not the immemorial relations between Syria and the West favoured his design. Europeans listened to the voice of Urban II because their own inclination and historic traditions impelled them towards the Holy Sepulchre.

From the end of the fifth century there had been no break in their intercourse with the Orient. In the early Christian period colonies of Syrians had introduced the religious ideas, art, and culture of the East into the large cities of Gaul and Italy. The Western Christians in turn journeyed in large numbers to Syria, Palestine, and Egypt, either to visit the Holy Places or to follow the ascetic life among the monks of the Thebaid or Sinai. There is still extant the itinerary of a pilgrimage from Bordeaux to Jerusalem, dated 333; in 385 St. Jerome and St. Paula founded the first Latin monasteries at Bethlehem. Even the Barbarian invasion did not seem to dampen the ardour for pilgrimages to the East. The Itinerary of St. Silvia (Etheria) shows the organization of these expeditions, which were directed by clerics and escorted by armed troops. In the year 600, St. Gregory the Great had a hospice erected in Jerusalem for the accommodation of pilgrims, sent alms to the monks of Mount Sinai ("Vita Gregorii" in "Acta SS.", March 11, 132), and, although the deplorable condition of Eastern Christendom after the Arab invasion rendered this intercourse more difficult, it did not by any means cease.

As early as the eighth century Anglo-Saxons underwent the greatest hardships to visit Jerusalem. The journey of St. Willibald, Bishop of Eichstädt, took seven years (722-29) and furnishes an idea of the varied and severe trials to which pilgrims were subject (Itiner. Latina, 1, 241-283). After their conquest of the West, the Carolingians endeavoured to improve the condition of the Latins settled in the East; in 762 Pepin the Short entered into negotiations with the Caliph of Bagdad. In Rome, on 30 November, 800, the very day on which Leo III invoked the arbitration of Charlemagne, ambassadors from Haroun al-Raschid delivered to the King of the Franks the keys of the Holy Sepulchre, the banner of Jersualem, and some precious relics (Einhard, "Annales", ad an. 800, in "Mon. Germ. Hist.: Script.", I, 187); this was an acknowledgment of the Frankish protectorate over the Christians of Jerusalem. That churches and monasteries were built at Charlemagne's expense is attested by a sort of a census of the monasteries of Jerusalem dated 808 ("Commemoratio de Casis Dei" in "Itiner. Hieros.", I, 209). In 870, at the time of the pilgrimage of Bernard the Monk (Itiner. Hierosol., I, 314), these institutions were still very prosperous, and it has been abundantly proved that alms were sent regularly from the West to the Holy Land. In the tenth century, just when the political and social order of Europe was most troubled, knights, bishops, and abbots, actuated by devotion and a taste for adventure, were wont to visit Jerusalem and pray at the Holy Sepulchre without being molested by the Mohammedans. Suddenly, in 1009, Hakem, the Fatimite Caliph of Egypt, in a fit of madness ordered the destruction of the Holy Sepulchre and all the Christian establishments in Jerusalem. For years thereafter Christians were cruelly persecuted. (See the recital of an eyewitness, Iahja of Antioch, in Schlumberger's "Epopée byzantine", II, 442.) In 1027 the Frankish protectorate was overthrown and replaced by that of the Byzantine emperors, to whose diplomacy was due the reconstruction of the Holy Sepulchre. The Christian quarter was even surrounded by a wall, and some Amalfi merchants, vassals of the Greek emperors, built hospices in Jerusalem for pilgrims, e.g. the Hospital of St. John, cradle of the Order of Hospitallers.

Instead of diminishing, the enthusiasm of Western Christians for the pilgrimage to Jerusalem seemed rather to increase during the eleventh century. Not only princes, bishops, and knights, but even men and women of the humbler classes undertook the holy journey (Radulphus Glaber, IV, vi). Whole armies of pilgrims traversed Europe, and in the valley of the Danube hospices were established where they could replenish their provisions. In 1026 Richard, Abbot of Saint-Vannes, led 700 pilgrims into Palestine at the expense of Richard II, Duke of Normandy. In 1065 over 12,000 Germans who had crossed Europe under the command of Günther, Bishop of Bamberg, while on their way through Palestine had to seek shelter in a ruined fortress, where they defended themselves against a troop of Bedouins (Lambert of Hersfeld, in "Mon. Germ. Hist.: Script.", V, 168). Thus it is evident that at the close of the eleventh century the route to Palestine was familiar enough to Western Christians who looked upon the Holy Sepulchre as the most venerable of relics and were ready to brave any peril in order to visit it. The memory of Charlemagne's protectorate still lived, and a trace of it is to be found in the medieval legend of this emperor's journey to Palestine (Gaston Paris in "Romania", 1880, p. 23).

The rise of the Seljukian Turks, however, compromised the safety of pilgrims and even threatened the independence of the Byzantine Empire and of all Christendom. In 1070 Jerusalem was taken, and in 1071 Diogenes, the Greek emperor, was defeated and made captive at Mantzikert. Asia Minor and all of Syria became the prey of the Turks. Antioch succumbed in 1084, and by 1092 not one of the great metropolitan sees of Asia remained in the possession of the Christians. Although separated from the communion of Rome since the schism of Michael Cærularius (1054), the emperors of Constantinople implored the assistance of the popes; in 1073 letters were exchanged on the subject between Michael VII and Gregory VII. The pope seriously contemplated leading a force of 50,000 men to the East in order to re-establish Christian unity, repulse the Turks, and rescue the Holy Sepulchre. But the idea of the crusade constituted only a part of this magnificent plan. (The letters of Gregory VII are in P.L., CXLVIII, 300, 325, 329, 386; cf. Riant's critical discussion in Archives de l'Orient Latin, I, 56.) The conflict over the Investitures in 1076 compelled the pope to abandon his projects; the Emperors Nicephorus Botaniates and Alexius Comnenus were unfavourable to a religious union with Rome; finally war broke out between the Byzantine Empire and the Normans of the Two Sicilies.

It was Pope Urban II who took up the plans of Gregory VII and gave them more definite shape. A letter from Alexius Comnenus to Robert, Count of Flanders, recorded by the chroniclers, Guibert de Nogent ("Historiens Occidentaux des Croisades", ed. by the Académie des Inscriptions, IV, 13l) and Hugues de Fleury (in "Mon. Germ. Hist.: Script.", IX, 392), seems to imply that the crusade was instigated by the Byzantine emperor, but this has been proved false (Chalandon, Essai sur le règne d'Alexis Comnène, appendix), Alexius having merely sought to enroll five hundred Flemish knights in the imperial army (Anna Comnena, Alexiad., VII, iv). The honour of initiating the crusade has also been attributed to Peter the Hermit, a recluse of Picardy, who, after a pilgrimage to Jerusalem and a vision in the church of the Holy Sepulchre, went to Urban II and was commissioned by him to preach the crusade. However, though eyewitnesses of the crusade mention his preaching, they do not ascribe to him the all-important rôle assigned him later by various chroniclers, e.g. Albert of Aix and especially William of Tyre. (See Hagenmeyer, Peter der Eremite Leipzig, 1879.) The idea of the crusade is chiefly attributed to Pope Urban II (1095), and the motives that actuated him are clearly set forth by his contemporaries: "On beholding the enormous injury that all, clergy or people, brought upon the Christian Faith . . . at the news that the Rumanian provinces had been taken from the Christians by the Turks, moved with compassion and impelled by the love of God, he crossed the mountains and descended into Gaul" (Foucher de Chartres, I, in "Histoire des Crois.", III, 321). Of course it is possible that in order to swell his forces, Alexius Comnenus solicited assistance in the West; however, it was not he but the pope who agitated the great movement which filled the Greeks with anxiety and terror.


After travelling through Burgundy and the south of France, Urban II convoked a council at Clermont-Ferrand, in Auvergne. It was attended by fourteen archbishops, 250 bishops, and 400 abbots; moreover a great number of knights and men of all conditions came and encamped on the plain of Chantoin, to the east of Clermont, 18-28 November, 1095. On 27 November, the pope himself addressed the assembled multitudes, exhorting them to go forth and rescue the Holy Sepulchre. Amid wonderful enthusiasm and cries of "God wills it!" all rushed towards the pontiff to pledge themselves by vow to depart for the Holy Land and receive the cross of red material to be worn on the shoulder. At the same time the pope sent letters to all Christian nations, and the movement made rapid headway throughout Europe. Preachers of the crusade appeared everywhere, and on all sides sprang up disorganized, undisciplined, penniless hordes, almost destitute of equipment, who, surging eastward through the valley of the Danube, plundered as they went along and murdered the Jews in the German cities. One of these bands, headed by Folkmar, a German cleric, was slaughtered by the Hungarians. Peter the Hermit, however, and the German knight, Walter the Pennyless (Gautier Sans Avoir), finally reached Constantinople with their disorganized troops. To save the city from plunder Alexius Comnenus ordered them to be conveyed across the Bosporus (August, 1096); in Asia Minor they turned to pillage and were nearly all slain by the Turks. Meanwhile the regular crusade was being organized in the West and, according to a well-conceived plan, the four principal armies were to meet at Constantinople.

  • Godfrey of Bouillon, Duke of Lower Lorraine at the head of the people of Lorraine, the Germans, and the French from the north, followed the valley of the Danube, crossed Hungary, and arrived at Constantinople, 23 December, 1096.
  • Hugh of Vermandois, brother of King Philip I of France, Robert Courte-Heuse, Duke of Normandy, and Count Stephen of Blois, led bands of French and Normans across the Alps and set sail from the ports of Apulia for Dyrrachium (Durazzo), whence they took the "Via Egnatia" to Constantinople and assembled there in May, 1097.
  • The French from the south, under the leadership of Raymond of Saint-Gilles, Count of Toulouse, and of Adhemar of Monteil, Bishop of Puy and papal legate, began to fight their way through the longitudinal valleys of the Eastern Alps and, after bloody conflicts with the Slavonians, reached Constantinople at the end of April, 1097.
  • Lastly, the Normans of Southern Italy, won over by the enthusiasm of the bands of crusaders that passed through their country, embarked for Epirus under the command of Bohemond and Tancred, one being the eldest son, the other the nephew, of Robert Guiscard. Crossing the Byzantine Empire, they succeeded in reaching Constantinople, 26 April, 1097.

The appearance of the crusading armies at Constantinople raised the greatest trouble, and helped to bring about in the future irremediable misunderstandings between the Greeks and the Latin Christians. The unsolicited invasion of the latter alarmed Alexius, who tried to prevent the concentration of all these forces at Constantinople by transporting to Asia Minor each Western army in the order of its arrival; moreover, he endeavoured to extort from the leaders of the crusade a promise that they would restore to the Greek Empire the lands they were about to conquer. After resisting the imperial entreaties throughout the winter, Godfrey of Bouillon, hemmed in at Pera, at length consented to take the oath of fealty. Bohemond, Robert Courte-Heuse, Stephen of Blois, and the other crusading chiefs unhesitatingly assumed the same obligation; Raymond of St-Gilles, however, remained obdurate.

Transported into Asia Minor, the crusaders laid siege to the city of Nicæa, but Alexius negotiated with the Turks, had the city delivered to him, and prohibited the crusaders from entering it (1 June, 1097). After their victory over the Turks at the battle of Dorylæum on 1 July, 1097, the Christians entered upon the high plateaux of Asia Minor. Constantly harrassed by a relentless enemy, overcome by the excessive heat, and sinking under the weight of their leathern armour covered with iron scales, their sufferings were wellnigh intolerable. In September, 1097, Tancred and Baldwin, brothers of Godfrey of Bouillon, left the bulk of the army and entered Armenian territory. At Tarsus a feud almost broke out between them, but fortunately they became reconciled. Tancred took possession of the towns of Cilicia, whilst Baldwin, summoned by the Armenians, crossed the Euphrates in October, 1097, and, after marrying an Armenian princess, was proclaimed Lord of Edessa. Meanwhile the crusaders, revictualled by the Armenians of the Taurus region, made their way into Syria and on 20 October, 1097, reached the fortified city of Antioch, which was protected by a wall flanked with 450 towers, stocked by the Ameer Jagi-Sian with immense quantities of provisions. Thanks to the assistance of carpenters and engineers who belonged to a Genoese fleet that had arrived at the mouth of the Orontes, the crusaders were enabled to construct battering-machines and to begin the siege of the city. Eventually Bohemond negotiated with a Turkish chief who surrendered one of the towers, and on the night of 2 June, 1098, the crusaders took Antioch by storm. The very next day they were in turn besieged within the city by the army of Kerbûga, Ameer of Mosul. Plague and famine cruelly decimated their ranks, and many of them, among others Stephen of Blois, escaped under cover of night. The army was on the verge of giving way to discouragement when its spirits were suddenly revived by the discovery of the Holy Lance, resulting from the dream of a Provençal priest named Pierre Barthélemy. On 28 June, 1098, Kerbûga's army was effectually repulsed, but, instead of marching on Jerusalem without delay, the chiefs spent several months in a quarrel due to the rivalry of Raymond of Saint-Gilles and Bohemond, both of whom claimed the right to Antioch. It was not until April, 1099, that the march towards Jerusalem was begun, Bohemond remaining in possession of Antioch while Raymond seized on Tripoli. On 7 June the crusaders began the siege of Jerusalem. Their predicament would have been serious, indeed, had not another Genoese fleet arrived at Jaffa and, as at Antioch, furnished the engineers necessary for a siege. After a general procession which the crusaders made barefooted around the city walls amid the insults and incantations of Mohammedan sorcerers, the attack began 14 July, 1099. Next day the Christians entered Jerusalem from all sides and slew its inhabitants regardless of age or sex. Having accomplished their pilgrimage to the Holy Sepulchre, the knights chose as lord of the new conquest Godfrey of Bouillon, who called himself "Defender of the Holy Sepulchre". They had then to repulse an Egyptian army, which was defeated at Ascalon, 12 August, 1099. Their position was nevertheless very insecure. Alexius Comnenus threatened the principality of Antioch, and in 1100 Bohemond himself was made prisoner by the Turks, while most of the cities on the coast were still under Mohammedan control. Before his death, 29 July, 1099, Urban II once more proclaimed the crusade. In 1101 three expeditions crossed Europe under the leadership of Count Stephen of Blois, Duke William IX of Aquitaine, and Welf IV, Duke of Bavaria. All three managed to reach Asia Minor, but were massacred by the Turks. On his release from prison Bohemond attacked the Byzantine Empire, but was surrounded by the imperial army and forced to acknowledge himself the vassal of Alexius. On Bohemond's death, however, in 1111, Tancred refused to live up to the treaty and retained Antioch. Godfrey of Bouillon died at Jerusalem 18 July, 1100. His brother and successor, Baldwin of Edessa, was crowned King of Jerusalem in the Basilica of Bethlehem, 25 December, 1100. In 1112, with the aid of Norwegians under Sigurd Jorsalafari and the support of Genoese, Pisan, and Venetian fleets, Baldwin I began the conquest of the ports of Syria, which was completed in 1124 by the capture of Tyre. Ascalon alone kept an Egyptian garrison until 1153.

At this period the Christian states formed an extensive and unbroken territory between the Euphrates and the Egyptian frontier, and included four almost independent principalities: the Kingdom of Jerusalem, the Countship of Tripoli, the Principality of Antioch, and the Countship of Rohez (Edessa). These small states were, so to speak, the common property of all Christendom and, as such, were subordinate to the authority of the pope. Moreover, the French knights and Italian merchants established in the newly conquered cities soon gained the upper hand. The authority of the sovereigns of these different principalities was restricted by the fief-holders, vassals, and under-vassals who constituted the Court of Lieges, or Supreme Court. This assembly had entire control in legislative matters; no statute or law could be established without its consent; no baron could be deprived of his fief without its decision; its jurisdiction extended over all, even the king, and it controlled also the succession to the throne. A "Court of the Burgesses" had similar jurisdiction over the citizens. Each fief had a like tribunal composed of knights and citizens, and in the ports there were police and mercantile courts (see ASSIZES OF JERUSALEM). The authority of the Church also helped to limit the power of the king; the four metropolitan sees of Tyre, Cæsarea, Bessan, and Petra were subject to the Patriarch of Jerusalem, similarly seven suffragan sees and a great many abbeys, among them Mount Sion, Mount Olivet, the Temple, Josaphat, and the Holy Sepulchre. Through rich and frequent donations the clergy became the largest property-holders in the kingdom; they also received from the crusaders important estates situated in Europe. In spite of the aforesaid restrictions, in the twelfth century the King of Jerusalem had a large income. The customs duties established in the ports and administered by natives, the tolls exacted from caravans, and the monopoly of certain industries were a fruitful source of revenue. From a military point of view all vassals owed the king unlimited service as to time, though he was obliged to compensate them, but to fill the ranks of the army it was necessary to enroll natives who received a life annuity (fief de soudée). In this way was recruited the light cavalry of the "Turcoples", armed in Saracenic style. Altogether these forces barely exceeded 20,000 men, and yet the powerful vassals who commanded them were almost independent of the king. So it was that the great need of regular troops for the defence of the Christian dominions brought about the creation of a unique institution, the religious orders of knighthood, viz.: the Hospitallers, who at first did duty in the Hospital of St. John founded by the aforesaid merchants of Amalfi, and were then organized into a militia by Gérard du Puy that they might fight the Saracens (1113); and the Templars, nine of whom in 1118 gathered around Hugues de Payens and received the Rule of St. Bernard. These members, whether knights drawn from the nobility, bailiffs, clerks, or chaplains, pronounced the three monastic vows but it was chiefly to the war against the Saracens that they pledged themselves. Being favoured with many spiritual and temporal privileges, they easily gained recruits from among the younger sons of feudal houses and acquired both in Palestine and in Europe considerable property. Their castles, built at the principal strategic points, Margat, Le Crac, and Tortosa, were strong citadels protected by several concentric enclosures. In the Kingdom of Jerusalem these military orders virtually formed two independent commonwealths. Finally, in the cities, the public power was divided between the native citizens and the Italian colonists, Genoese, Venetians, Pisans, and also the Marseillais who, in exchange for their services, were given supreme power in certain districts wherein small self-governing communities had their consuls, their churches, and on the outskirts their farm-land, used for the cultivation of cotton and sugar-cane. The Syrian ports were regularly visited by Italian fleets which obtained there the spices and silks brought by caravans from the Far East. Thus, during the first half of the twelfth century the Christian states of the East were completely organized, and even eclipsed in wealth and prosperity most of the Western states.


Many dangers, unfortunately, threatened this prosperity. On the south were the Caliphs of Egypt, on the east the Seljuk Ameers of Damascus, Hamah and Aleppo, and on the north the Byzantine emperors, eager to realize the project of Alexius Comnenus and bring the Latin states under their power. Moreover, in the presence of so many enemies the Christian states lacked cohesion and discipline. The help they received from the West was too scattered and intermittent. Nevertheless these Western knights, isolated amid Mohammedans and forced, because of the torrid climate, to lead a life far different from that to which they had been accustomed at home, displayed admirable bravery and energy in their efforts to save the Christian colonies. In 1137 John Comnenus, Emperor of Constantinople, appeared before Antioch with an army, and compelled Prince Raymond to do him homage. On the death of this potentate (1143), Raymond endeavoured to shake off the irksome yoke and invaded Byzantine territory, but was hemmed in by the imperial army and compelled (1144) to humble himself at Constantinople before the Emperor Manuel. The Principality of Edessa, completely isolated from the other Christian states, could not withstand the attacks of Imad-ed-Din, the prince, or atabek, of Mosul, who forced its garrison to capitulate 25 December, 1144. After the assassination of Imad-ed-Din, his son Nour-ed-Din continued hostilities against the Christian states. At news of this, Louis VII of France, Queen Eleanor of Aquitaine, and a great number of knights, moved by the exhortations of St. Bernard, enlisted under the cross (Assembly of Vézelay, 31 March, 1146). The Abbot of Clairvaux became the apostle of the crusade and conceived the idea of urging all Europe to attack the infidels simultaneously in Syria, in Spain, and beyond the Elbe. At first he met with strong opposition in Germany. Eventually Emperor Conrad III acceded to his wish and adopted the standard of the cross at the Diet of Spires, 25 December, 1146. However, there was no such enthusiasm as had prevailed in 1095. Just as the crusaders started on their march, King Roger of Sicily attacked the Byzantine Empire, but his expedition merely checked the progress of Nour-ed-Din's invasion. The sufferings endured by the crusaders while crossing Asia Minor prevented them from advancing on Edessa. They contented themselves with besieging Damascus, but were obliged to retreat at the end of a few weeks (July, 1148). This defeat caused great dissatisfaction in the West; moreover, the conflicts between the Greeks and the crusaders only confirmed the general opinion that the Byzantine Empire was the chief obstacle to the success of the Crusades. Nevertheless, Manuel Comnenus endeavoured to strengthen the bonds that united the Byzantine Empire to the Italian principalities. In 1161 he married Mary of Antioch, and in 1167 gave the hand of one of his nieces to Amalric, King of Jerusalem. This alliance resulted in thwarting the progress of Nour-ed-Din, who, having become master of Damascus in 1154, refrained thenceforth from attacking the Christian dominions.

King Amalric profited by this respite to interpose in the affairs of Egypt, as the only remaining representatives of the Fatimite dynasty were children, and two rival viziers were disputing the supreme power amid conditions of absolute anarchy. One of these disputants, Shawer, being exiled from Egypt, took refuge with Nour-ed-Din, who sent his best general, Shírkúh, to reinstate him. After his conquest of Cairo, Shírkúh endeavoured to bring Shawer into disfavour with the caliph; Amalric, taking advantage of this, allied himself with Shawer. On two occasions, in 1164 and 1167, he forced Shírkúh to evacuate Egypt; a body of Frankish knights was stationed at one of the gates of Cairo, and Egypt paid a tribute of 100,000 dinárs to the Kingdom of Jerusalem. In 1168 Amalric made another attempt to conquer Egypt, but failed. After ordering the assassination of Shawer, Shírkúh had himself proclaimed Grand Vizier. At his death on 3 March, 1169, he was succeeded by his nephew, Salah-ed-Dîn (Saladin). During that year Amalric, aided by a Byzantine fleet, invaded Egypt once more, but was defeated at Damietta. Saladin retained full sway in Egypt and appointed no successor to the last Fatimite caliph, who died in 1171. Moreover, Nour-ed-Din died in 1174, and, while his sons and nephews disputed the inheritance, Saladin took possession of Damascus and conquered all Mesopotamia except Mosul. Thus, when Amalric died in 1173, leaving the royal power to Baldwin IV, "the Leprous", a child of thirteen, the Kingdom of Jerusalem was threatened on all sides. At the same time two factions, led respectively by Guy de Lusignan, brother-in-iaw of the king, and Raymond, Count of Tripoli, contended for the supremacy. Baldwin IV died in 1184, and was soon followed to the grave by his nephew Baldwin V. Despite lively opposition, Guy de Lusignan was crowned king, 20 July, 1186. Though the struggle against Saladin was already under way, it was unfortunately conducted without order or discipline. Notwithstanding the truce concluded with Saladin, Renaud de Châtillon, a powerful feudatory and lord of the trans-Jordanic region, which included the fief of Montréal, the great castle of Karak, and Aïlet, a port on the Red Sea, sought to divert the enemy's attention by attacking the holy cities of the Mohammedans. Oarless vessels were brought to Aïlet on the backs of camels in 1182, and a fleet of five galleys traversed the Red Sea for a whole year, ravaging the coasts as far as Aden; a body of knights even attempted to seize Medina. In the end this fleet was destroyed by Saladin's, and, to the great joy of the Mohammedans, the Frankish prisoners were put to death at Mecca. Attacked in his castle at Karak, Renaud twice repulsed Saladin's forces (1184-86). A truce was then signed, but Renaud broke it again and carried off a caravan in which was the sultan's own sister. In his exasperation Saladin invaded the Kingdom of Jerusalem and, although Guy de Lusignan gathered all his forces to repel the attack, on 4 July, 1187, Saladin's army annihilated that of the Christians on the shores of Lake Tiberias. The king, the grand master of the Temple, Renaud de Châtillon, and the most powerful men in the realm were made prisoners. After slaying Renaud with his own hand, Saladin marched on Jerusalem. The city capitulated 17 September, and Tyre, Antioch, and Tripoli were the only places in Syria that remained to the Christians.

from: http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/04543c.htm


Note: Opinions expressed in comments are those of the authors alone and not necessarily those of Daniel Pipes. Original writing only, please. Comments are screened and in some cases edited before posting. Reasoned disagreement is welcome but not comments that are scurrilous, off-topic, commercial, disparaging religions, or otherwise inappropriate. For complete regulations, see the "Guidelines for Reader Comments".

Submit a comment on this item

<< Previous Comment      Next Comment >>

Reader comments (340) on this item

Title Commenter Date Thread
1Of terrorists wanting to bomb the Taj Mahal [85 words]JAMIL HAQJan 14, 2010 23:53167349
Site removed for violations [50 words]Seamus Dafydd Dives MacNemiOct 12, 2009 22:02163009
Why Islam is Worse than Fascism [30 words]SinghaJul 5, 2007 02:09102992
Islam is the religion of God and Islamophobia is unjustified [135 words]KlausDec 16, 2007 03:15102992
why are islamists never wrong? [17 words]jOMBAJul 28, 2009 13:17102992
1You read history Mohammed Klaus [481 words]DharmaFeb 2, 2011 21:35102992
your thoughts are superficial [9 words]latefMar 26, 2011 05:56102992
1first you study about islam well [90 words]babuApr 4, 2011 01:51102992
Are you serious?! [68 words]EricApr 27, 2017 06:09102992
a rose by any other name [168 words]Phil GreendJul 1, 2007 08:13102122
Caution When Talking About Islam [144 words]Lee MorganApr 13, 2007 03:4589115
Islamo Arab fascism: For Arabs only, For Muslims only & Anti-Israel as an integral part of it [1029 words]AlMar 28, 2007 12:5088126
1Nothing but 'ARAB RACISM' & 'ISLAMIC BIGOTRY' created maintains drives the 'MIDDLE EAST CONFLICT' [2931 words]AlAug 20, 2008 21:2788126
About those 900,000 Jews that were forcibly expelled from Arab lands. [265 words]Aimee KligmanOct 19, 2008 13:1788126
1Islamic teaching and western naivete [192 words]stanley bMay 24, 2012 00:5388126
2to the death [58 words]soldierMar 22, 2007 07:0887671
peace unto thee [296 words]kittyMay 28, 2008 00:0687671
On the abuse of Religion [227 words]Seamus Dafydd Dives MacNemiOct 12, 2009 21:5487671
Live and Let Live Or Vanish [353 words]Kiran KumarOct 7, 2014 20:4687671
1A must watch short video about Islam from a famous Arab Ex-Muslim [11 words]Abdul RahmanSep 22, 2006 14:2557013
peace [23 words]VINAYAGAR DASSSep 21, 2009 10:3257013
Islamic fascism is correct [107 words]Tertium QuidSep 6, 2006 11:4855086
1Medieval religion [113 words]KNIGHTS TEMPLARSep 19, 2006 20:4655086
Personally I prefer Muslim Imperialists [11 words]Seamus Dafydd Dives MacNemiOct 12, 2009 22:0655086
Enjoy the Middle East [43 words]stormsAug 14, 2012 09:5755086
root problem [147 words]budiSep 4, 2006 23:2654926
Islamofacist [75 words]Carol A. AuckermanSep 1, 2006 13:2354613
At war with Islam? [56 words]VijayAug 27, 2006 04:3554069
Media [59 words]MuslimAug 29, 2006 20:5954069
been listening [178 words]danSep 7, 2006 15:5554069
Mainstream/new media vs old (purana) media [29 words]Hari IyerAug 27, 2006 01:3854064
Dr Pipes names in one of the WSJ editorial page [77 words]
w/response from Daniel Pipes
Hari IyerAug 27, 2006 01:1654063
Some predictions please Mr Pipes ? [190 words]
w/response from Daniel Pipes
TonyAug 26, 2006 08:1254036
Muslims [170 words]John RAug 25, 2006 23:0954013
Just be consistent with labeling [36 words]TajuddinAug 29, 2006 03:4154013
Tajuddin's, Wishful Thinking [96 words]InfidelAug 29, 2006 20:1054013
Kudos to you! [63 words]TajuddinAug 30, 2006 19:5254013
1"Islamic Imperialists" or "Islamic Supremacists", not "Islamists" [141 words]PegAug 25, 2006 09:2353980
Dumb & Dumber [112 words]Faqi HussainAug 25, 2006 01:5653968
Proof of Pakistani Terror in India; and The Hero of Pakistan, A Q Khan! [82 words]Vishnu GuptaAug 23, 2006 08:1953828
Islamism/Islamic Fascism [78 words]I\an CampbellAug 23, 2006 05:4553816
I think you are wrong [34 words]Vineet BhanotDec 27, 2006 00:5753816
Yes, to the term "Islamists" [185 words]J.S.Aug 22, 2006 16:4453740
The threat of communism was/is very real..... [233 words]Angel B.Nov 6, 2006 10:1753740
Questions for Muslims to answer in Ireland - might be helpful for the US and other countries [627 words]Paddy MonaghanAug 22, 2006 10:2553691
Remember Taqiyya [201 words]InfidelAug 23, 2006 20:3353691
Please read quran [275 words]MuslimAug 27, 2006 01:1553691
2Please Read Qur'an [506 words]InfidelAug 27, 2006 21:3653691
Informed Ignorance [183 words]TajuddinAug 29, 2006 03:3153691
Tajuddin, Are You Still Laughing [270 words]InfidelAug 29, 2006 19:3753691
Sorry your're Wrong [526 words]MuslimAug 29, 2006 20:4853691
Uh...yup... [121 words]TajuddinAug 30, 2006 21:2053691
1Reading of kuran [114 words]AlexSep 23, 2006 05:5453691
Beach-head [120 words]Roger MichaelApr 12, 2007 04:1753691
Who really needs any of it? [519 words]Seamus MacNemiJul 8, 2007 18:2053691
To you Dear Muslim [142 words]Seamus MacNemiJul 8, 2007 19:1853691
My thoughts exactly Alex [33 words]Seamus MacNemiJul 8, 2007 19:2553691
SO WRONG!! [93 words]SaminaNov 19, 2007 22:1553691
Hi samina [136 words]AlexNov 22, 2007 07:3153691
quran [143 words]shihabMar 2, 2009 20:0053691
terrorism is the punishment for terroriesm [84 words]niroop.micheljacksonOct 9, 2009 06:4153691
AI Shihab HA HA HA HA HA HA [221 words]Seamus Dafydd Dives MacNemiOct 12, 2009 23:4453691
To niroop.micheljackson [199 words]Seamus Dafydd Dives MacNemiOct 13, 2009 01:0153691
To the Site Managers [232 words]
w/response from Daniel Pipes
Thomas Justin KazeAug 22, 2006 08:0853686
Islam Is Fascist [527 words]John RAug 22, 2006 00:4853666
IslamoFascist [233 words]Suren SukhtankarAug 21, 2006 13:4953611
Defining the enemy [258 words]Peter EdgarAug 24, 2006 07:4753611
You don't make sense [160 words]Kathy JonesDec 19, 2006 01:5753611
Kathy Jones, please explain! [374 words]MosheDec 19, 2006 07:0053611
Idiotic West you Say! [87 words]another infidelDec 20, 2006 01:1053611
‘RAMZI YOUSEF' - THE EPITOME OF ‘ISLAMOFASCISM' [526 words]ThomFeb 5, 2008 23:3953611
1Can anyone tell a little about India? [258 words]Ronaldo FerrarioAug 20, 2006 15:2253540
A Little Bit of Reading Never Harmed Anyone [268 words]Georges FernandezAug 21, 2006 02:4853540
"We will go to war" - Hamid Gul [56 words]Georges FernandezAug 21, 2006 02:5353540
History teacher Brazil [843 words]FaisalAug 22, 2006 00:3853540
Reply to Mr Ronaldo [24 words]Amitabh tripathiAug 22, 2006 13:3653540
Faisal is factually wrong Mr Ronaldo [882 words]Amitabh tripathiAug 23, 2006 05:2653540
Dr. Ronaldo Ferrario of Brazil, Anyone can! [2255 words]Rakshas 10 AnanAug 23, 2006 07:5453540
To Dr. Ronaldo Ferrario, In Response To The Last Few Unanswered Queries [1020 words]Rakshas 10 AnanAug 23, 2006 13:5753540
Re: Faisal is factually wrong Mr Ronaldo [81 words]KlewAug 23, 2006 15:5553540
A Little information about INDIA [6422 words]Eric ThomasAug 23, 2006 15:5853540
Hello there again Mr Amitabh [980 words]FaisalAug 23, 2006 23:3353540
information about india [198 words]Giri KumarAug 24, 2006 03:0153540
Reply to Faisal [493 words]Amitabh tripathiAug 25, 2006 00:4353540
To Faisal, In Friendship and Sympathy [2539 words]Rakshas 10 AnanAug 25, 2006 10:3653540
Moghuls of India [354 words]GFAug 25, 2006 11:0153540
For You, Faisal, A Musical Note From Everyday India That No Pakistani Can Ever Dream Of! [444 words]Rakshas 10 AnanAug 26, 2006 04:4353540
I'm also an Indian first [414 words]FaisalAug 26, 2006 12:1553540
Final reply to Faisal [71 words]Amitabh tripathiAug 27, 2006 11:4653540
You are 100% wrong [92 words]Bharat KhanAug 29, 2006 12:4753540
its their problem [172 words]MuslimAug 29, 2006 21:2253540
Lets be Indians and stop fighting about things which mean nothing in the current world. [132 words]indianSep 7, 2006 10:4953540
Is Islamic Fascism a Slur? [1012 words]AmilSep 24, 2006 09:2453540
Catholic apology..... [41 words]Angel B.Nov 6, 2006 11:5053540
to Ronaldo [152 words]ASDec 21, 2006 06:2553540
to Faisal [346 words]ASDec 21, 2006 07:1153540
Indian? [32 words]AnubhavDec 21, 2006 07:2753540
Again to Mr. Muslim [236 words]Seamus MacNemiJul 9, 2007 01:1753540
1Indian Muslims [116 words]sukrutJan 28, 2009 14:2353540
Arayans From Germany??? [240 words]Seamus Dafydd Dives MacNemiOct 13, 2009 02:4053540
The stealing of monuments and sacred grounds [58 words]Seamus Dafydd Dives MacNemiOct 13, 2009 03:1353540
About india [59 words]PruthviAug 11, 2012 05:0053540
CAIR does not = CARE, so quit the moaning and groaning [80 words]CaryAug 20, 2006 13:1653532
' No' to use of 'Islamists'. [47 words]RodneyAug 19, 2006 19:3853480
re: At War with Islamic Fascists" [5 words]CaryAug 24, 2006 21:0353480
Search for the facts, not the term [597 words]Amitabh tripathiAug 19, 2006 04:4853430
You have a point Mr.Amitabh [340 words]Save The WorldAug 20, 2006 02:2153430
Reply to save the world [105 words]Amitabh tripathiAug 21, 2006 11:1153430
facts n Islam n Islamic fascism [74 words]ASDec 21, 2006 07:2453430
Communism = Fascism. Ignore the words look at the results. [302 words]David AmstadtAug 19, 2006 00:1353419
Raids reveal 'evil designs' of Jehadi Terrorism in South Asia [382 words]SageAug 18, 2006 14:4553377
1Call them Muslims : Muslims are Muslims , so why to confuse and waste time [144 words]Vani BhujiAug 18, 2006 08:4353344
US and THEM... [1006 words]Thomas Justin KazeAug 18, 2006 03:4853324
Kiss them wherever you find them! [229 words]Thomas Justin KazeAug 20, 2006 04:3653324
Nuke them ??? [377 words]GSSep 22, 2006 13:1053324
Anti Jihad humor [49 words]Seamus MacNemiJul 9, 2007 19:4653324
Back to GS: An excellent idea. When can we start? [54 words]Seamus MacNemiJul 9, 2007 19:5753324
Islamic Fascists gets my vote [531 words]RPaineAug 18, 2006 03:3453322
President/ Commander-in-chief has already replaced the term "Islamic Facist" [24 words]K LAug 17, 2006 18:2053273
Compromise , Retreat , Ceasefire , Truce , Concessions & Appeasement will bring more Islamic Terrorism [81 words]RamAug 20, 2006 02:3753273
1Definition of Fascism [270 words]Prof. Karla PoeweAug 17, 2006 17:2553264
Pakistan let al-Qaida front fund UK plot to blow up ten aeroplanes [282 words]ChouajisAug 18, 2006 14:4853264
ISLAM NAZI, FASCIST, TERRORISTS, ETC ETC [212 words]DONVANAug 17, 2006 16:4153257
is islam about aliens [71 words]o b lieAug 4, 2008 08:4453257
may allah forgive you [167 words]muslimOct 30, 2008 13:1953257
Shariaism [155 words]Henk TwerdaAug 17, 2006 15:2453245
Better name than Islamofascist [40 words]Darryl DavisAug 17, 2006 14:2853238
Islam and Fascism [146 words]SinghaAug 17, 2006 13:0453225
Intolerance And Religion [201 words]John R. PeacherAug 17, 2006 09:1553206
Muslim arrested for murder of an Italian Christian Volunteer who was helping Arab Children in Jerusalem [138 words]NeeruAug 20, 2006 02:4953206
How About "At War With Muslim Freedom Fighters?" [64 words]GFAug 17, 2006 03:2553184
Daniel Pipes should set up a seperate Media Wing to deseminate Counter Terrorism Information [177 words]PunditAug 17, 2006 02:4853179
At War with Islamic Fascists [78 words]iasius_christosAug 17, 2006 01:3453173
Wordly Conundrum [104 words]Robert KennedyAug 16, 2006 20:1253141
1Muslims: Robotic Murderers or natural born killers? [308 words]Shenu BhaAug 17, 2006 14:2053141
Islam and muhammad [385 words]M. A.Jul 18, 2007 21:0553141
see [53 words]gddNov 27, 2007 22:1453141
I would like to suggest " Muslim Fanatics" (EOM) [1 words]Bernard RossAug 16, 2006 18:4153134
Drug smuggling to fund Islamic Terrorism [132 words]RaymondsAug 19, 2006 11:4953134
Good article [367 words]Robert ErikssonAug 16, 2006 18:3653132
Bush picked the right term in terms of immediate mass recognition. [70 words]Bernard RossAug 16, 2006 18:3553130
1Muslim parents kill daughter for she was in love with Italian [216 words]FanoosAug 17, 2006 14:1853130
Re: Fanoos: Rapes [34 words]BAug 18, 2006 13:3653130
Islamist term doesn't meet 6th grade level reader test [44 words]Brian LuedkeAug 16, 2006 15:4753103
Mr.Pipes please tell us about the role common man can play in this Global war against Terrorism [78 words]
w/response from Daniel Pipes
saveAug 16, 2006 14:5753100
Deafness [293 words]Ed HalperAug 16, 2006 14:5653099
Islam is the biggest threat to civilisation , Just eradicate it . Sooner the better [40 words]sgugeAug 16, 2006 14:5153097
Go India [30 words]sanyomousSep 22, 2006 11:1053097
Terror ways of Jet airways : Muslims arrested in Airlines staff : Be aware of Muslims staff members [318 words]SonubanaAug 16, 2006 14:2353087
false allegations [191 words]krishna chettriAug 26, 2006 17:1153087
Something wrong!! [314 words]ChandarNov 15, 2006 05:3953087
Terror plot busted,18 Jehadis arrested from Kerala , India [191 words]SubramaniamAug 16, 2006 14:1953085
Fascistic [45 words]Robert LaGambaAug 16, 2006 13:3953071
Stephen Schwartz disagrees, too [119 words]Dan Schwartz (Cherry Hill, NJ)Aug 16, 2006 12:4553063
Islamism, fascism and marxism [484 words]Concerned EuropeanAug 16, 2006 04:0253019
Poor semantics; good propaganda [50 words]rwAug 16, 2006 03:5753018
how about [1 words]paul reissAug 16, 2006 01:4753003
Islamofacism has got to go [42 words]C. CannonAug 16, 2006 00:5052990
"Islamofascists or Islamic fascism [128 words]Fazal CurmallyAug 16, 2006 00:4752988
thanks [18 words]Un DrainAug 17, 2006 14:0252988
defining Islamofascism? [364 words]Jascha KesslerAug 16, 2006 00:3152986
The fear of Islam in America [76 words]f.shakkiAug 15, 2006 22:4352971
Mr.Pipes should launch his TV Channel , Live and Print Media to expose the Islamic Threat [57 words]KabudiAug 16, 2006 14:4852971
Fascism and Islamism [214 words]
w/response from Daniel Pipes
Andy B.Aug 15, 2006 22:2852967
Islamic fascism a better term [83 words]Christine BurttAug 15, 2006 20:3252950
Islamic Supremacists [13 words]Levi MoriahAug 15, 2006 20:1752947
"Islamic Supremacy" [112 words]GS BrandAug 15, 2006 19:0352939
"Discrimination against Muslim" means treating them like everyone else; i.e., NO SPECIAL PRIVILEDGES! [271 words]Dr RJPAug 15, 2006 18:2552936
Arrested Terrorist is Professor in Engineering College [192 words]MoraraAug 16, 2006 14:1752936
Students , Politician , Soldier , Policeman , Religious Mullah , Social Leader , Doctor and now engineer as well : Oh my God ! [138 words]Sanjeeta MishraAug 17, 2006 02:3552936
are you sure?... [22 words]ahmad zafireAug 20, 2006 22:3652936
Islam and Crusades... [478 words]Angel B.Nov 6, 2006 13:0552936
Terrorist does not belong any religion [35 words]Md.Yusuf MulgeNov 25, 2007 00:3352936
Knowledge is the Key [285 words]Salahuddin KuliyevNov 16, 2009 13:1852936
You say tomato and I say tomahto [105 words]SullyAug 15, 2006 16:5552923
Islamic Pakistan is backstabbing Dhimmi Westerners [2190 words]GogadevAug 17, 2006 14:1452923
Santorum's speech on July 20 was bold, brave, and true. [1114 words]James VesceAug 15, 2006 16:0952919
My vote is for Islamist - Preserving the American Dream in the Face of Islamization [192 words]David J. JonssonAug 15, 2006 14:5652914
naming [360 words]John W. McGinleyAug 15, 2006 13:2652909
Religion & Paece [91 words]Shaun GilmoreAug 15, 2006 12:2052906
You are making a mistake in thinking that Islam is like Christianity [111 words]SullyAug 16, 2006 01:1452906
Discussion of Islamo-Fascism [45 words]Laina Farhat-HolzmanAug 15, 2006 11:2852904
Historical/Philosophical Connections [249 words]Ed HalperAug 15, 2006 11:2852903
IslamoNazi's [333 words]Jake JacobsAug 15, 2006 10:2552899
1Muslim Terrorists is appropriate name [94 words]JaladhiAug 15, 2006 09:3952896
199.99 % of Terrorists are Muslims working for the aim of Islam & Jehad [81 words]RoyalAug 16, 2006 14:1052896
Al Qaeda Letter Threatens to Blow Up Taj Mahal in India [182 words]NageshAug 18, 2006 15:0652896
Re: IslamoFascism [100 words]Eleanor GoldsteinAug 15, 2006 09:3552895
what is a fascist [43 words]bradAug 15, 2006 08:4552893
Jihadis [24 words]Gary LukeAug 15, 2006 07:3252886
Better Late than Never [168 words]Michael E. BishopAug 15, 2006 06:2652882
Islamofascists hits the mark better [69 words]Yossi Ben-AharonAug 15, 2006 04:3452880
An appeaser is one who keeps feeding the crocodile in the hope it will eat him last [392 words]Dall ChandAug 16, 2006 14:1452880
Islamic Fascism [161 words]Terry BrodskyAug 15, 2006 04:3152879
Islam Is As Islam Was [67 words]InfidelAug 15, 2006 17:0152879
Reply to Infidel 15/08 [413 words]Terry BrodskyAug 15, 2006 22:0752879
Islam's valuable contribution to Air travel [422 words]War against TerrorismAug 16, 2006 14:0552879
Scare the living daylights out of them! [110 words]Thomas Justin KazeAug 15, 2006 04:2152877
We are eating out their hands! Especially the international news media, commentators, politicians, and opinion makers!!! [179 words]GFAug 15, 2006 03:3252875
We are dealing with polemics in trying to come up with a term to describe the terrorists. [324 words]David SabghirAug 15, 2006 01:4652870
i'll call it what it is [105 words]jimmytheclawAug 15, 2006 01:4152869
We have named the enemy are we prepared to engage them? [551 words]NuclearWinterAug 15, 2006 01:1752868
We have to start preparing for the final battle after Muslim attack innocents by NBCs [291 words]ArjunAug 17, 2006 02:2552868
The Ones that Aren't Fascists-- [213 words]William KinneyAug 15, 2006 01:0552865
The Ruthless Fascist Army with 1.4 billion soldiers called ISLAM [356 words]TTSAug 15, 2006 00:5452862
Call spade a spade [64 words]RobertAug 15, 2006 18:3952862
To understand the enemy.... [16 words]NemesisJul 21, 2007 11:4752862
you said you've studied Islam...? [181 words]AJOct 19, 2007 11:1852862
Avoid such false accusations [194 words]Muhammad Tahir MazariMar 30, 2009 08:3252862
Crass Islamic Hypocrisy [64 words]wotthefiqhOct 5, 2009 12:1952862
please study [32 words]MuslimDec 9, 2011 09:1952862
Islamists [116 words]GFAug 15, 2006 00:5352861
Definitely Fascists [69 words]Salomon BenzimraAug 15, 2006 00:4152860
How about just "Islam?" [190 words]Mark NedelmanAug 15, 2006 00:2352859
Militant Islam [370 words]Mitzi AlvinAug 15, 2006 00:1252857
We need a naming contest [273 words]LeeAug 15, 2006 00:0552856
Islam is facscist , militant, totlitarian, terrorism & racist [102 words]f.shakkiAug 14, 2006 23:5452855
Admission? [39 words]Abu NudnikAug 14, 2006 23:5152853
Call A Spade A Spade [857 words]John RAug 14, 2006 23:3052852
There is a history of islamo-fascism [123 words]Robert WoodAug 15, 2006 14:5052852
The Solution [126 words]moyalAug 14, 2006 23:1352851
Religion of Peace [394 words]
w/response from Daniel Pipes
Bill HyltonAug 14, 2006 22:5852848
The other strategic thing President Bush has done is to recognize India as a major nuclear power [134 words]SullyAug 16, 2006 01:2952848
meaning of the "religion of peace" [111 words]Concerned EuropeanAug 16, 2006 04:1552848
4USA , India , Israel ,Australia, UK are frontline allies in the War against Islamic Terrorism [211 words]TaurusAug 18, 2006 08:1752848
Aus [6 words]Jim (aus)Sep 6, 2010 07:5952848
Islamist ????? [476 words]JacquelineAug 14, 2006 22:4752846
Islamo-Nazis (vs. Islamists or Islamo-fascists) [31 words]Robert J. Meth, MDAug 14, 2006 22:2352840
"ISLAMIC FASCISM" CANNOT EXIST! [162 words]Allan E. MallenbaumAug 14, 2006 22:1552839
Historical links between Fascism and Islam [115 words]Prof. Irving HexhamAug 18, 2006 01:4052839
"ISLAMIC FASCISM" CANNOT EXIST! FASCIST MUSLIMS CAN! [55 words]Allan E. MallenbaumAug 18, 2006 20:1052839
Islamic Fascism and Conversion to Islam [169 words]Prof. Irving HexhamAug 19, 2006 16:3952839
When is a terrorist not an Islamic terrorist [431 words]Lloyd KleinAug 14, 2006 22:0352835
Just call them Muslims [245 words]Fred StoneAug 14, 2006 21:5252832
Muslim will launch intifada in Europe and will destroy European Continent from within [266 words]TatabhuAug 19, 2006 05:0752832
bitter pill [7 words]williamsOct 5, 2007 17:3352832
RE: Call them Muslims! [16 words]swoozyOct 19, 2007 19:0752832
a rose by any other name [213 words]Andria SwitzerAug 14, 2006 21:5152831
Call them what they are [130 words]Donald Grant Cheesman, USA (RETIRED)Aug 14, 2006 21:3052828
ISLAMIC FASCISTS [604 words]ROSEAug 14, 2006 21:2052826
Islam is a political ideology [426 words]HowardAug 14, 2006 21:1752825
Were all the Immigrant Officials muslim or did the Brits keel over? [38 words]wyzeoleowlAug 14, 2006 20:4252824
Islamic Barbarians [124 words]Donald OAug 14, 2006 20:2752821
Islamo fascists. [30 words]Milton FriedAug 14, 2006 19:4652809
new terms for suicide bomber [87 words]Mitch BAug 14, 2006 19:4452808
suicide murder [16 words]Ed HalperAug 15, 2006 21:5352808
MPED-- massacre, pillage, enslavement, and deportation [101 words]William Sumner ScottAug 14, 2006 19:3052806
Terminology [16 words]AlAug 14, 2006 19:2352804
Right idea, wrong terminology [172 words]Alan GoldAug 14, 2006 19:1952802
Islamic fascism is the best term [138 words]AdamAug 14, 2006 19:1652801
Anything better than "Islamic extremism" will do. [185 words]C.A.Aug 14, 2006 19:0352797
"Obsession" film documents Hitler, Mayor of Baghdad, fascism connection. [24 words]James JohnsonAug 14, 2006 18:5752795
Islam Ideology [143 words]Paul RinderleAug 14, 2006 17:5852792
Thank you, folks [61 words]LDCAug 14, 2006 20:0152792
Terminology [226 words]Douglas BoggsAug 14, 2006 17:2552790
A jihad by any other name.... [234 words]Jinan SafwatAug 15, 2006 01:0852790
Challenge Muslims with their own faityh texts. [58 words]SteveAug 14, 2006 17:2252789
Islamofacism [58 words]Mari Ann AndrieuxAug 14, 2006 17:1852788
Islamofascist is the better term [296 words]PatAug 14, 2006 17:1152787
it is about time, or is it? [321 words]andrew freedmanAug 14, 2006 17:0952786
Islamic Fascism? Islamic Totalitarianism? "A Rose By Any Other Name....." [272 words]Mark AndersonAug 14, 2006 16:5952785
Islamism = fascism [85 words]Octavio JohansonAug 14, 2006 16:4752783
Pit NAzrallah against Bin Laden [67 words]SwaminathanAug 14, 2006 16:2052781
Calling spade a spade hurts [143 words]SwaminathanAug 14, 2006 16:1652780
islamic fascists [141 words]robert fusfeldAug 14, 2006 16:1452779
To paraphrase William Shakespeare: "Excrement" by any other name would smell as bad [474 words]Dr RJPAug 14, 2006 15:4752775
not to paraphrase but to quote Montaigne and Erasmus: [55 words]charles fortnerAug 15, 2006 17:4752775
political correctness [10 words]DonnaAug 14, 2006 15:4552773
CAIR Heirs of the German-American Bund [14 words]LDCAug 14, 2006 15:4452772
Lashkar e Taibba and Al Qaida : Militant Islam will destroy India with in ten years [1729 words]chandubanaAug 16, 2006 14:2752772
the bitter truth! [207 words]bitter pillOct 5, 2007 18:0152772
Warning !!!! [20 words]RamSep 21, 2009 22:4352772
no body can even touch india [34 words]prasadOct 4, 2009 13:1852772
to destroy terrorism [55 words]samyOct 31, 2009 09:3152772
supporting let [4 words]vivekDec 18, 2009 03:1952772
fascism, terrorism, cold blodded killers;they are all the same [125 words]islamic fascismAug 14, 2006 15:4052771
IslamoNazi will be a good name too [9 words]ArieAug 14, 2006 15:3552770
The Right Term [7 words]Josh TichoAug 14, 2006 15:2552769
Islamofacist, terrorists, radical Islamists...forgive us if we've hurt you and your brothers' feelings!!!! [245 words]JustMeAug 14, 2006 15:2452768
Significant Majority of Muslims Support Islamic Terrorism and Suicide Bombings [120 words]RexAug 19, 2006 04:5452768
Islamists" is probaly the most accurate term, but... [140 words]Junius2006Aug 14, 2006 15:2152767
Islamist Fascists [131 words]Ken G.Aug 14, 2006 15:1252766
title for Muslim fascists: [7 words]Hal LewisAug 14, 2006 15:1052765
could tide be turning? [216 words]Bill RandlesAug 14, 2006 15:0552764
Islamists or Muslim Terrorists? [113 words]InfidelAug 14, 2006 15:0352763
Muslim Terrorists [53 words]JaladhiAug 15, 2006 10:4352763
Great Minds Think Alike [12 words]InfidelAug 16, 2006 02:0652763
tiptoeing thru the tulip [55 words]mbrandiAug 14, 2006 14:5852760
Charade of likes of CAIR [51 words]JaladhiAug 14, 2006 14:5652757
A Cult is a Cult is a Cult [573 words]ChristinaAug 14, 2006 14:4352756
Some parallels of historical fascism and islamicism [97 words]Jack GoldbergAug 14, 2006 14:4352755
Response to condemning only the "Islamic Facists [100 words]philip mannesAug 14, 2006 14:4052754
Next up ... [35 words]Victor PurintonAug 14, 2006 14:3252752
Militant Islams or Islamic fascism [244 words]Nenette GrunbergAug 14, 2006 14:1952749
Islam and reason [46 words]
w/response from Daniel Pipes
gnargtharstAug 14, 2006 14:1052746
1Woe to me that I dwell amidst the tents of Kadar. I am a man of peace but they are for war. Psalms [186 words]MichaelAug 14, 2006 14:0652744
Islamofascists [54 words]David G. VieiraAug 14, 2006 13:5552743
Mel Gibson, Karr Vs Muhammad Vs CNN, CNBC, FOX [41 words]Hari IyerAug 17, 2006 22:0652743
Islamic Fascism [183 words]FX MeaneyAug 14, 2006 13:5252742
Islamic Fascists or Islamists [143 words]Chris ChrismanAug 14, 2006 13:4452741
Marxism, Leninism, Fascism, Islamism, Enemies of the Enlightenment [218 words]Paul SaundersAug 14, 2006 13:3052739
Islamic Supremacists: That's the Term [308 words]JoeAug 14, 2006 13:2552736
Islamic fascists [68 words]Bob HamiltonAug 14, 2006 13:2152732
criteria of fascism [224 words]G. BisvasAug 14, 2006 13:0852729
Islamic Fascists [60 words]Alyn StarkmanAug 14, 2006 13:0652728
Correct title for our enemy [75 words]Sigmund SilberAug 14, 2006 12:5552726
Islamic Insanity [174 words]Robert GuinaughAug 14, 2006 12:5152724
Moderate muslim [18 words]b29Aug 15, 2006 16:1952724
"Islamist" is wonkish [77 words]Dan Schwartz (Cherry Hill, NJ)Aug 14, 2006 12:5152723
It is Islam, dummy [1359 words]Amil ImaniAug 14, 2006 12:4852722
scratching the surface [66 words]T.RoderickAug 14, 2006 22:3852722
Getting it! [22 words]Bill StoreyAug 15, 2006 20:2652722
Look at History [83 words]KathyDec 19, 2006 01:4852722
Islamic Fascists & Islamo-Fascists. What's in a name? [94 words]Robert H. Tyrka Sr.Aug 14, 2006 12:4752721
Islamic Fascists are "Jihadists" [110 words]TopnifeAug 14, 2006 12:4652720
The right label [11 words]Brooks ImperialAug 14, 2006 12:4652719
Accountability [85 words]David W. LincolnAug 14, 2006 12:3952717
No need for hyphens [7 words]Ron KilmartinAug 14, 2006 12:3152716
How about "totalitarian Islamists?" [4 words]McGinleyAug 14, 2006 12:1452715
What should we call the terrorists? [76 words]William SpillerAug 14, 2006 12:1152714
At war... [217 words]SHmuel HaLeviAug 14, 2006 12:1052713
Islamic Fascists? [90 words]Ken NebelAug 14, 2006 12:0852712
'Islamofascist' fits the bill [268 words]Henrik R ClausenAug 14, 2006 11:5852711
Fascists or Nazis? [73 words]Tom MillsAug 14, 2006 11:5552710
to give a name to the chief terrorists of today [4 words]W.VandenbergAug 14, 2006 11:5252709
Islam [60 words]Alan WintersAug 14, 2006 11:4452708
Prof.Daniel Pipes has given the most appropriate term " Militant Islam" [139 words]MohitAug 14, 2006 11:4152707
traditional or orthodox muslims [49 words]justsayno2islamAug 14, 2006 11:1552705
The Truth Has To Be Told Who We Are At War With [63 words]AnneMAug 14, 2006 10:3752703
20World War III : Islam versus the Rest [153 words]RonyAug 16, 2006 14:3952703
I think the Muslims extremists forgot who ordered and funded the Crusades [61 words]JennySep 4, 2006 15:2752703
Crusades [4813 words]Angel B.Nov 6, 2006 13:4152703
1death of america? [40 words]world warrior IIIOct 26, 2007 03:3952703
PEACE Peace PEACE [344 words]cOMMON mUSLIMDec 13, 2008 15:5752703
islam [173 words]muslimMar 9, 2009 12:3552703
islam and war [12 words]SamAug 5, 2009 19:5852703
Ah yes, those who have converted??? [158 words]Seamus Dafydd Dives MacNemiOct 14, 2009 23:3052703
1Great pease needs sometimes great voilence [155 words]Ajay SinghOct 6, 2010 00:1752703

Comment on this item

Mark my comment as a response to Crusades by Angel B.

Email me if someone replies to my comment

Note: Opinions expressed in comments are those of the authors alone and not necessarily those of Daniel Pipes. Original writing only, please. Comments are screened and in some cases edited before posting. Reasoned disagreement is welcome but not comments that are scurrilous, off-topic, commercial, disparaging religions, or otherwise inappropriate. For complete regulations, see the "Guidelines for Reader Comments".

See recent outstanding comments.

Follow Daniel Pipes

Facebook   Twitter   RSS   Join Mailing List
eXTReMe Tracker

All materials by Daniel Pipes on this site: © 1968-2020 Daniel Pipes. daniel.pipes@gmail.com and @DanielPipes

Support Daniel Pipes' work with a tax-deductible donation to the Middle East Forum.Daniel J. Pipes

(The MEF is a publicly supported, nonprofit organization under section 501(c)3 of the Internal Revenue Code.

Contributions are tax deductible to the full extent allowed by law. Tax-ID 23-774-9796, approved Apr. 27, 1998.

For more information, view our IRS letter of determination.)