69 million page views

Nazi Arabs: 1930s, 1940s and beyond (Palestine, Iraq, Levant, etc.) [Racism] גזענות - ערבים - נאצים

Reader comment on item: Middle East Provocations and Predictions
in response to reader comment: Arab Palestine 1930-70s: alliances w Nazis then w Communists, yet always were genocidal

Submitted by Aaron (United States), Oct 1, 2021 at 06:47

Nazi Arab: 1930s, 1940s & beyond

Hitler was clear about his disdain for the Arab world, writing in Mein Kampf: "As a völkisch man, who appraises the value of men on a racial basis, I am prevented by mere knowledge of the racial inferiority of these so-called 'oppressed nations' from linking the destiny of my own people with theirs".[1] And the Grand Mufti al-Husseini has said "that after the Jews, the Germans would destroy the Arabs— he knew this."[46]

In the 1930s, Arab students returning from studying in Europe were determined to found the Arab Nazi party.[2]

In February, 1932, the predominat "Falastin" periodical (which was banned by the Ottomans in 1914 for inciting racism and was reinstated in 1921[3]), published an extremely exciting piece about Hitler.[4]

Yet, in 1933, anti-Jewish sentiments was still not as prevelant among Arabs in general, but in the upper strata and among intellectuals. Heinrich Wolff implied in his report to German foreign ministry that if the Nazi regime made appeals to Arabs and Muslims, suggested to get the Grand Mufti and others as allies and collaborators. At the time the Grand Mufti, in his meeting with Wolf, called for boycotting Jews.[1]

In 1934, Arabs in Palestine used swastika in calls for boycotting Jews.[5][6][7]

The swastika became a symbol among many Arabs in Palestine.[9]

The Husseinis, the ex Mufti and his nephew Jamal al-Hussein, had founded in 1935, the al-Futuwwa, modeled on Hitler-youth.[8][9]

Also in 1935 Palestine, Arab youths in Haifa founded the Arab nazi club: 'The Red Moon'.[10][11]

In May, 1937 in honouring Muhammad's birthday, Hitler and Mussolini were celebrated, en masse.[12]

Months later, in early Dec. 1937, Nazis Affiliate with Arabs; To Boycott Palestine Goods.' And Nazis "decided to establish closer contact with Arab youth groups."

⁨⁨'Nazis Affiliate with Arabs; To Boycott Palestine Goods.'[13]

In 1938, French magazine Marianne published an article revealing the Palestinian Arabs' incredible enthusiasm for Hitler. The magazine reported that in the town of Nablus, the Arab population "received British troops with shouts of 'Heil Hitler'." Marianne also revealed to the French public that a number of Arab journals were regularly publishing racist editorials but also large portraits of Third Reich leaders. According to the magazine, the Arab newspapers "do not even try to conceal the fact that they have become pupils of the Ministry of Propaganda in Berlin."[14]

The Falastin magazine, as well as most newspapers in Palestine supported Hitler.[15]

A poll conducted in February 1941, showed 88% Palestine Arabs supported Nazi Germany over Britain.[16]

General pre WW2 Arab-Nazi Arab-Fascist organizations:

There were a number of strong pre-war Arab - Nazi organizations — the Iron Shirts (led by Fakhri al-Barudi of the National Bloc, member of the Syrian Parliament to this day); the League for National Action (headed by Abu al-Huda al-Yafi, Dr. Zaki al-Jabi and others); the An-Nadi al-Arabi Club of Damascus (headed by Dr. Said Abd al-Fattah al-Imam); the "Councils for the Defence of Arab Palestine" (headed by well - known pro-Nazi leaders, such as Nabih al-Azma, Adil Arslan and others); the "Syrian National Party" (led by the Fascist Anton Saada, who escaped during the war to the Germans and was sent by them to the Argentine). The National Bloc, the principal party in Syria, and more particularly the Istiqlal group (headed by Shukri al-Kuwatli, now President of the Syrian Republic) had for many years been openly pro-Nazi. Before the war, Baldur von Schirach, leader of the Hitlerjugend, visited Syria on a special mission and established close contact with these circles and with the Arab youth organisation.[17]

At least seven different Arab nationalist groups had developed shirt movements by 1939 (white, gray, and iron in Syria; blue and green in Egypt; tan in Lebanon; white in a Iraq)... The three most directly influenced by European fascism would seem to have been the Syrian People's Party (PPS, also sometimes known as the Syrian National Socialist Party), the Iraqi Futuwwa youth movement. And the Young Egypt movement (also known as the Green Shirts) [Misr al-Fatat]. All three were nonrationalist, anti-intellectual, and highly emotional, and all three were territorially expansionist, with Sami Shawkat, the Futuwa ideologue, envisioning the "Arab nation" as eventually covering half the globe (though by conversion and leadership, not military ...[18]


Ba'athism's Michel 'Aflaq, who called[22] upon all Arabs, Muslims as well as Christians, to admire Islam and the "Prophet" because of Islam's "important role in shaping Arab history and Arab nationalism," and was an ardent proponent of pan-Arab[19] ideology celebrating the glorious Islamic past. During World War II, he admired Adolf Hitler[21] and saw in Nazism the type of national socialism he espoused for the Arab world.

Apart from 'Aflaq's enthusiasm for Hitler, he also deemed his National-Socialist Germany as a model[19] for the society he wanted to create.


One of the principal founders of Ba'athist thought and the Ba'ath Party, Zaki al-Arsuzi, stated that Fascism and Nazism had greatly influenced Ba'athist ideology. A student of al-Arsuzi, Sami al-Jundi, wrote:

'We were racialists, admiring Nazism, reading its books and the source of its thought, particularly Nietzsche's Thus Spoke Zarathustra, Fichte's Addresses to the German Nation, and H. S. Chamberlain's The Foundations of the Nineteenth Century, which revolves on race. We were the first to think of translating Mein Kampf.

Whoever has lived during this period in Damascus will appreciate the inclination of the Arab people to Nazism, for Nazism was the power which could serve as its champion, and he who is defeated will by nature love the victor. But our belief was rather different.'[20]


The most notorious nazi collaborator in the Arab world, infamous ex Grand Mufti of Palestine, pan-Arab, pan-Islamic leader, Hajj amin al-Husseini,[23][24][25][26] from his youth he took the old infamous blood libel as "fact" and believed in "credibility" of ritual murder[27] who--began his agitation for violence at least in 1920,[28][29][30][31] and much responsible[32][33] for the Hebron 1929 massacre on non-Zionist pious Jews[34][35]--within two months of Hitler's rise to power has already contacted the Germans.[1][36]

A sworn enemy of the Jews, as testified by German official.[37]

Worked with the Nazis even after being convinced the nazis wouldn't help even in as much as halting little migration of Jews in exchange of Germans held by Britain.[38] Incited to the Farhud pogrom upon Iraqi Jews, June 1941.[39][40][41] Which according to some estimates resulted in upto 1,000 casualties.[42]

He met with A. Hitler on November 28, 1941;[43] whereby Hitler revealed to him his extermination plan;[44] the Mufti went on to request a public announcement of Hitler's intention to eliminate the Jews in Palestine at the time, claiming the statement would help initiate more violence against the Jews.

"A public declaration in this sense would be very useful for its propagandist effect on the Arab peoples at this moment. It would rouse the Arabs from their momentary lethargy and give them new courage. It would also ease the Mufti's work of secretly organizing the Arabs against the moment when they could strike," he explained;[43] dubbed: "The Hitler of the Holyland",[45] he had broadcasted over Berlin radio airwaves to the Muslim world, a jihad, to kill the Jews wherever they find them;[46][47] intervened against rescue of thousands of Jewish children during the holocaust;[48][49] has led SS Muslim divisions in E. Europe, committing massacres;[50][51] ("played a role in fomenting hatred between Bosnian Muslims and the largely Serb-led partisan force fighting the Germans in Yugoslavia, an anger that burst forth again in the atrocities of 1992[47]); he received a congratulatory letter from Himmler in 1943 against the common enemy;[53] in 1943 it was revealed he planned to built huge Auschwitz-like crematoria near Nablus for Jews from the Middle-East and North Africa;[52] his Arab-Nazi joint plot of Operation Atlas in 1942 with H. Salameh which some claim it included to poison 250,000 Tel Aviv residents;[90][91][92][93] he visited in a "tour" at Trebbin concentration camp at around 1943;[54] and for at least six months[55] kept urging the Nazis to bomb Tel Aviv and Jerusalem,[100] even when Germany was losing.[56] And also still preached for genocide.[52] In his memoirs, the mufti wrote:

"Our fundamental condition for cooperating with Germany was a free hand to eradicate every last Jew from Palestine and the Arab world.

I asked Hitler for an explicit undertaking to allow us to solve the Jewish problem in a manner befitting our national and racial aspirations . . . according to the scientific methods innovated by Germany in handling of its Jews. The answer I got was: 'The Jews are yours.'"[9]

Though, Al-Husseini himself has said "that after the Jews, the Germans would destroy the Arabs— he knew this."[47]


Among his helpers in fighting for Hitler, his nephew Jamal al-Husseini.[56][57] Active also with the Mufti in the pro-Nazi coup of Iraq in 1941.[58]


Another helper of the Mufti for the Nazis was Ahmad Shukeiri (al-Shukairy, Shukayri, Shuqayri),[61] (allied with the Mufti early on and invloved in Mufti's gang assassinating his own brother, a moderare, Dr. Anwar Shukeiri in 1939[59]) who recalled, he and his surrounding, 1939-1940, were all praying for Hitler's victory and that no one agreed to enlist in the British army,[60] and who since Stalin began fighting against Hitler in 1941, has switched and fought for Hitler against the Jews.[61][62][63][64][65][66]

Both Jamal al-Husseini and Ahmad Shukeiri have in 1946 justified the Holocaust and repeated Goebbels' propaganda.[67][68] Shukeiri himself was sacked in mid-December 1962 by King Faisal[69][70][71][72][73] over his November-30-1962 cheering, saluting, promoting the Nazis of Argentina (Tacuara)[74] who earlier (June-1961) abducted 19-year old Jewish student Graciela Sirota, tortured her, carved a swastika on her breast as revenge for killing Adolf Eichmann.[75] Shukeiri also objected to Eichmann's trial in Israel.[76][77]


Another helper of the Mufti was Tunisian born Hussein Triki, collaborated with the Nazis,[78][79] settled in Argentina in 1962, forged ties with Nazi groups there including aforementioned Tacuara,[80] incited[81] for violence against Jews,[80] and has denied the Holocaust in 2011.[83][84]

(Arab League's Triki in the region reminds that Holocaust denier[106][107] Issa Nakhle was part of 1947 League's linked Arab lobby emissaries--with Akram Zuaiter reportedly helped in pro-Nazi 1941 coup in Iraq--to revive antisemitism in Latin America[112]).


Emir Shakib Arslan undertook to spread the world of Mussolini, and to exploit the Abyssinian crisis in order to inspire the younger generation in the Middle East to revolt against the French and the British. He hoped that such an uprising would enhance pan-Arabism, esepcially his brand, namely Arabism with a strong element of Islamic identity and solidarity. In his 1935 writings, he "combined the negative messages of radical Islam with the modern message of fascist propaganda."[85]

Arslan became a so-called "honorary German" in October 1939, despite the fact that "Hitler at first refused to authorise the grant to him of the honorary German citizenship on the grounds that he was a Semite."[86]

Arslan held the post as chief Islamist in Europe, "the kaiser's and the Nazis' most consistent Arab ally who up to 1945 had been subsidized by Hitler's regime.[87]


Rashid Ali al-Kilani spearheaded the pro -Nazi coup in Iraq, 1941,[88] one of the leaders in Farhud pogrom: "Masterminds like al-Kailani and al-Husseini wanted to signal, there in a 2,500-year-old community, how Arabia's Jews should be treated."[54] Then he escaped with the Mufti to Berlin. He also met Hitler in 1941 and has participated in disseminating Nazi propaganda.[89] He visited a concentration camp together with the Mufti, ca. 1943.[54] Like the Mufti, he also met with Hitler and Ribbentrop.[89]


Hassan Salameh was one of the leaders of the Great Arab Revolt, which, like the Mufti, moved to Iraq and from there to Nazi Germany. He was a partner in the Mufti's plot 'Operation Atlas', which was launched in Palestine on October 6, 1944, in which three Germans and two Arabs were captured.[87] Per some historians, it included a plan to massacre hundreds of thousands of Jews via poisoning the wells of Tel Aviv.[90][91][92][93]


Fawzi Kawkaji[94] was an Arab military commander best known for his fight against the Yishuv in the Great Arab Revolt, then crowned "Supreme Commander of the Arab Revolt in Palestine". After fleeing Israel, he was an accomplice in Rashid Ali al-Khilani's pro-Nazi and anti-British uprising in Iraq in 1941.[96]

After the failure of the uprising he arrived in Nazi Germany, married in Germany and served there as an Arab leader in exile in Germany who served the Nazi propaganda machine.[95][98] With the Mufti, Fawzi Kaukji and Wasef Kamal, helped organize Muslim SS-units in the Balkan.[97][98]


Fawzi al-Kutub studied sabotage in Nazi Germany in the late 1930s and also took a commando course on behalf of SS in the Netherlands. During the course he refused to fulfill an order and as a result was imprisoned in a concentration camp near the city of Breslau in Germany. He was released due the ties of the Mufti of Jerusalem, Haj Amin al-Husseini, with the top echelons of the Nazi leadership.

He was al-Husseini's chief bomb maker. He learned bomb making at SS course in Nazi-Germany.[98][99]


Egypt's King Farouk was a nazi collaborator. [100][101]


Anwar Sadat was a Nazi collaborator and had still expressed admiration for Hitler in the 1950s.[102][103]


Jorge Sabaj Zurob, who emigrated from Palestine (now Israel) to Chile in 1931, admired Hitler in his periodical [The 'La Reforma' - renamed:] "The Arab World" "El Mundo Arabe" as early as 1933.[104] Printed at least twice the famous forgery "The Protocols of the Elders of Zion" extensively, and distributed despicable cartoons about Jews. The paper was banned during World War II, and was warned to be re-arrested in 1949 by a leading media outlet in that country.[105]

He kept ties with Issa Nakhle (who was part of 1947 Arab lobby emissaries--with Akram Zuaiter reportedly helped in pro-Nazi 1941 coup in Iraq--to revive antisemitism in Latin America[112]) and promoted him when he edited and published "America and the East" 'America y Oriente,' in which he praised totalitarian regimes, especially of Hitler, Nazi Germany,[106] and who denied the Holocaust in November 14, 1972[107][108] and who worked with neo Nazis till at least the mid 1980s.[109][110][111].


Jews had paid Arabs to serve in British army against the Nazis.[113]

In 1942, many in Arab Palestine cheered the news of the mass murder of Jews. Some were skeptic and tended to believe it's "propaganda."[114]




Jeffrey Herf, "Nazi Propaganda for the Arab World," (Yale University, 2009), pp.15-16 .



Armies of the young: child soldiers in war and terrorism By David M. Rosen, Rutgers University Press, 2005, p.106. http://books.google.com/books?id=zQYQ0tho6mAC&pg=PA106


Elie Kedourie, Sylvia G. Haim: 'Zionism and Arabism in Palestine and Israel' (RLE Israel and Palestine), Taylor & Francis, 2015. p. 8.

https://books.google.com/books?id=Qj6sCQAAQBAJ&pg=PA8&lpg=PA8. https://www.scribd.com/doc/50775054/Zionism-and-Arabism .

'Two other incidents in April added to Yishuv anxiety. In Jaffa, citrus-owner. Samuel Tolkowsky complained that Government permission for the reappearance of Falastin, which had been closed down by the Turks for incitement to race-hatred in April 1914, could only be a source of discouragement to 'moderate' Arabs and an official invitation to 'extremists.'


Zmanim. (1998). Israel: Zemorah, Bitan, Modan. p. 2.


'In February 1932 the newspaper Falastin published an extensive article about Adolf Hitler; The thrilled writer enthusiastically and admiringly described the personality of Hitler, whom he called one of the greats of the New World or the "Iron Man of Germany."'


Arabs Use Swastika in Fight for Trade of Jews in Holy Land. JTA, August 14, 1934. https://www.jta.org/1934/08/14/archive/arabs-use-swastika-in-fight-for-trade-of-jews-in-holy-land


Heidemarie Wawrzyn: "Nazis in the Holy Land 1933-1948," (Walter de Gruyter, Aug 1, 2013), p.95.



Palestine Post, 13 May, 1935. 7


The PLO: the rise and fall of the Palestine Liberation Organization, Volume 1984, Part 2. Jillian Becker, Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1984. p. 19.


'In March 1935 the Husseinis also formed a party, called the Palestinian Arab Party. It was, as its president Jamal Husseini freely boasted, inspired by German Nazism. It included a 'youth troop', modelled on the Hitler Youth, for a while actually called the "Nazi Scouts".'


Jack R. Fischel, "Historical Dictionary of the Holocaust," (Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2020) ,p. 159 .


'Husseini was among the first to greet Hitler's rise to power in Germany ... An admirer of Hitler, Husseini organized the "Nazi Scouts," based on the Hitler Youth, and the swastika became a symbol among many Arabs in Palestine...

In his memoirs, the mufti wrote, "Our fundamental condition for cooperating with Germany was a free hand to eradicate every last Jew from Palestine and the Arab world.

I asked Hitler for an explicit undertaking to allow us to solve the Jewish problem in a manner befitting our national and racial aspirations . . . according to the scientific methods innovated by Germany in handling of its Jews. The answer I got was: 'The Jews are yours.'" '


Arabs in Haifa Form Nazi Club; Well Financed. JTA, July 1, 1935.



"Arabs in Haifa Form Nazi Club; Well Financed". Canadian Jewish Chronicle. 5 July 1935.



"ALL ARABS CELEBRATE PROPHET'S BIRTHDAY; Christians Join Moslems in Fete Unprecedented in Palestine--Hitler and Duce Cheered". Wireless to The New York Times. May 23, 1937, Section General, Page 31.



"Nazis Affiliate With Arabs, To Boycott Palestine Goods."

The Sentinel⁩⁩, 9 December 1937. Page ⁨34.


'Damascus, Dec. 7 (JTA).

The armed extremist the Arab National Youth Organization this week threatened a boycott of Arab merchants who bought "Zionist goods from Palestine" following the visit here of Baldur von Schirach, head of the Hitler youth Organization in Germany.

Accompanied by 15 Nazi agents, von Schirach conferred with Nazi representatives in the Near East and decided to establish closer contact with Arab youth groups.

It was also decided to increase propaganda in existing German schools in the Near East and to establish others.'


"Hitler's war against Jews continues in 'Palestine'". Richard Mather, The Jerusalem Post, March 16, 2015.



Haggai Erlich, The Middle East Between the World Wars," vol.2; vol.5, Open University of Israel, 2002, p.81.


['Also Filastin (Palestine, newspaper), which criticized Mussolini, supported Hitler, as did almost all other newspapers.']


'Poll,' [February 1941], CZA S25/ 9226.

Hillel Cohen, "Army of Shadows: Palestinian Collaboration with Zionism, 1917–1948" (2008) p.175.



American Christian Palestine Committee (1946): "The Arab War Effort: A Documented Account". p.7.



Payne, Stanley G., A history of fascism, 1914-1945. (University of Wisconsin Press, 1996), p. 352.



Adel Soheil, "The Iraqi Ba'th Regime's Atrocities Against the Faylee Kurds Nation-State Formation Distorted", (Books on Demand, 2018), pp. 55-56.


'Similar to al-Husri, 'Aflaq was an ardent proponent of pan-Arab ideology celebrating the glorious Islamic past and advocating the unity of all Arab states. However, he deviated slightly from al-Husri's though in that he endeavoured to create a synthesis between nationalism and socialism applicable to all Arab states.

Apart from 'Aflaq's enthusiasm for Hitler, he also deemed his National-Socialist Germany as a model for the society he wanted to create. When the pro-German pan-Arab nationalists under al-Gilani took power with the support of the Third Reich in Iraq, 'Aflaq formed a committee to defend al-Gilani's regime. German nationalist ideology appealed strongly to 'Aflaq and his young generation.

As it is confirmed by one of the old Ba'thists, they were "influenced by Nietzsche's Thus Spoke Zarathustra, Fichte's Fourteen Letters to the German Nation, and Hitler's Mein Kampf," 'Aflaq's pro-Nazi inclination, despite his studying in France and becoming acquainted with the constitutional basis of the French Revolution...

The three French-educated Syrian intellectuals 'Aflaq, a Greek Orthodox Christian, together with Salah al-Din Bitar a Sunni Muslim, and Zaki al-Arsuzi, an Alawit founded the Ba'th party in 1947 ...Sami al-Jundi who later became a leading Ba'thist, describing himself and his friends during the 1940s as "racists who admired Nazism" and contemplated to translate Mein Kampf into Arabic.'


Elie Kedourie (1974). "Arabic Political Memoirs and Other Studies." London: Frank Cass. p. 200.


'Jundi records the occasion, on 29 November 1940, when he and four other young men met in the room of one of them and listened to a four-hour lecture by Arsuzi on Democracy, Communism and Nazism, beginning with Descartes ...At the end Of this discourse which 'plumbed the depths ' and was 'warm and emotional', Arsuzi suggested the formation of an Arab Resurrection Party. Jundi became the treasurer of the small group...

We were racialists ['irqiyyin], admiring Nazism, reading its books and the source of its thought, particularly Nietzsche's Thus Spake Zarathustra, Fichte's Addresses to the German Nation, and H. S. Chamberlain's Foundations of the Nineteenth Century, which revolves on race. We were the first to think of translating Mein Kampf.'


Rodney P. Carlisle (2005), "Encyclopedia of Politics." p. 540.


'While Aflaq embraced Islam as the religion for the Arab peoples, it was ironic that he had been raised a Christian. During World War II, he admired Adolf Hitler and saw in Nazism the type of national socialism he espoused for the Arab world.'


Princeton Papers: Interdisciplinary Journal of Middle Eastern Studies. (1997). United States: Markus Wiener Publishers. Vol. 5, p.33.


+Muslims+as+well+as+Christians,+to%C2%A0admire+Islam%22 ; William Harris, ‎Aḥmad Ashraf, ‎Yesim Arat (1997), "Challenges to Democracy in the Middle East." p.33.



'The Islamic Component A. The Genesis of the Ba'th: Islam in the Thought of Michel 'Aflaq ... 'Aflaq called upon all Arabs, Muslims as well as Christians, to admire Islam and the "Prophet" because of Islam's "important role in shaping Arab history and Arab nationalism."'


Edy Cohen, "The Grand Mufti's Nazi connection." The Jerusalem Post, April 7, 2014.



"The Mufti and the Führer." Jewish Virtual Library.



MacKenzie Column: 'The Grand Mufti Is on the Loose Again'. The Evening Star, Bradford, Pa., June 12, 1946, p.3.



David Dalin: "Icon of Evil: Hitler's Mufti and the Rise of Radical Islam," (Routledge, 2017).



Dalin, David. Icon of Evil: Hitler's Mufti and the Rise of Radical Islam. United Kingdom: Taylor & Francis, 2017.


'From his youth, al-Husseini believed in the credibility of these accusation of.. ritual murder.'


Official Records, UN, 1947, p.74.


'Recalling the events of the past thirty years, he stressed the role played by Haj Amin el Husseini, Grand Mufti of Jerusalem... enemy of the Jews and of the British, he had soon become the undisputed leader of Arab nationalism in Palestine and had been sentenced to ten years' imprisonment as instigator of the disturbances of April 1920.'


Alan Allen, "American Civilian Counter-terrorist Manual: a fictional autobiography of Ronald Reagan," (Trafford Publishing, 2008).


'Grand Mufti was an organizer of the 1920, 'Bloody Passover' massacre of Jews praying at Jerusalem's Wailing Wall.'


Danny Danon, "Israel: The Will to Prevail", (S. Martin's Publishing Group, 2012), p.163.


'The mufti had risen in influence after inspiring, in 1920, the first major pogrom in Palestine against the Jews... However, the most horrific pogrom was the Hebron Massacre on August 23, 1929...'


The Magazine of the Year, Volume 2. Associated Magazine Publishers, 1948 - New York (N.Y.), p.145.


'It started in April 1920, when Arab mobs subjected the Jewish quarter of Jerusalem to four days "Kill the Jews": At Mufti - inspired demonstrations like this, thousands of Arab tribesmen, whipped into a frenzy, volunteer to fight his war in Palestine.'


"Evidence of Mufti's Responsibility for Arab Outbreak Piles Up in Jerusalem Trial", JTA, October 17, 1929.



Frederick Nathan: "Diversions: America Under Attack", (Xlibris Corporation, 2018).


'Following a call by the grand mufti to attack Jews, a massacre of Jews and rabbinical students took place in Hebron—it was 1929.'


Michael J Cohen: "Britain's Moment in Palestine: Retrospect and Perspectives, 1917-1948", (Routledge, 2014), p.216.


'In 1929, as in 1920, the historical community of Orthodox, non-Zionist Jews bore the brunt of Arab attacks – this time in the towns of Hebron'.


Ritchie Ovendale: "The Origins of the Arab Israeli Wars" (Routledge, 2015), p.71.


'In Hebron a community of non-Zionist Jews was wiped out'.


Sami Moubayed, "Syria and the USA: Washington's Relations with Damascus from Wilson to Eisenhower", (Bloomsbury Publishing, 2012), p.43



Joseph B. Schechtman, "The Mufti and the Fuehrer: The Rise and Fall of Haj Amin El-Husseini", (T. Yoseloff, 1965), p.156.



Francis R. Nicosia: "Nazi Germany and the Arab World", (Cambridge University Press, 2015), p.279.



Lyn Julius: "Farhud: a slaughter in Iraq", The Jewish Chronicle May 31, 2011.



'The Farhud--Remembering a Tragic Time for Iraqi Jews.' jewishideas.org



"Farhud memories: Baghdad's 1941 slaughter of the Jews," BBC, Jun 1, 2011.



'As many as 1,000 Jews could have died in the Farhud.'

Jewish Refugees, 3 June 3, 2021.


'The 80th anniversary of the Farhud, the 1941 massacre of Jews in Iraq, has produced a plethora of articles. Carole Basri writes that the death toll could have been as many as 1,000 Jews murdered or disappeared, while lamenting the theft of Jewish history in Iraq. Edwin Black says that there is continuity between the Nazi-Arab alliance and the Jew-hatred still manifest today. Lyn Julius says that the ideology of Hamas is kindred to the Jew-hating ideology of the wartime Mufti, the driving force behind the Farhud.'


"The Mufti's Conversation with Hitler." Jewish Virtual Library.



Germany. Auswärtiges Amt, "Documents on German Foreign Policy, 1918-1945, from the Archives of the German Foreign Ministry",

U.S. Government Printing Office, 1949, pp. 881-2



F1 / 0018-24 .

Memorandum by an Official of the Foreign Minister's Secretariat .

Füh. 57a . g Rs.

BERLIN, November 30, 1941.


"Full official record: What the mufti said to Hitler." TOI Staff, Oct 21, 2015.

The following is an official German record of the meeting between Adolf Hitler and the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem, Haj Amin al-Husseini, on November 28, 1941, at the Reich Chancellory in Berlin. (Source: Documents on German Foreign Policy 1918-1945, Series D, Vol XIII, London, 1964.)


'The Arabs were Germany's natural friends, Haj Amin al-Husseini told the Nazi leader in 1941, because they had the same enemies — namely the English, the Jews and the Communists' ..."to solve the Jewish problem."

The Mufti then mentioned the letter he had received from Germany, which stated that Germany was holding no Arab territories and understood and recognized the aspirations to independence and freedom of the Arabs, just as she supported the elimination of the Jewish national home.

A public declaration in this sense would be very useful for its propagandistic effect on the Arab peoples at this moment. It would rouse the Arabs from their momentary lethargy and give them new courage. It would also ease the Mufti's work of secretly organizing the Arabs against the moment when they could strike. At the same time, he could give the assurance that the Arabs would in strict discipline patiently wait for the right moment and only strike upon an order from Berlin.'

Hadassah Brenner, "Grand Mufti, leaders in photo with Nazi officials at concentration camp," JPost, April 8, 2021.



The Magazine of the Year, Volume 2. Associated Magazine Publishers, 1948 - New York (N.Y.), p.145.



The Palestine Problem and Proposals for Its Solution. United States: Nation Associates, 1947. p.52



Robert Fisk, "The Great War for Civilisation: The Conquest of the Middle East," (Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group, 2007), Chapter 11:

'But amid the evil of the Holocaust, Haj Amin's moral position seems untenable. There is, too, in the archives of the wartime BBC Monitoring Service, a series of transcripts from Nazi radio stations that cast a dark shadow over any moral precepts Haj Amin might hace claimed. Here he is, for example, addressing a Balfour Day rally at the Luftwaffe hall in Berlin on 2 November 1943: "The Germans know how to get rid of the Jews . . . They have definitely solved the Jewish problem." And on Berlin radio on 1 March 1944: "Arabs, rise as one man and fight for your sacred rights. Kill the Jews wherever you find them. This pleases God, history and religion." On 21 January that year, Haj Amin had visited Ante Pavelic's ferocious Fascist state of Croatia—which included present-day Bosnia— where he addressed Muslim recruits to the SS with these words, so sharply in contrast with sentiments expressed in his postwar memoirs: "There are also considerable similarities between Islamic principles and National Socialism, namely, in the affirmation of struggle and fellowship. . . in the ideas of order."

He even played a role in fomenting hatred between Bosnian Muslims and the largely Serb-led partisan force fighting the Germans in Yugoslavia, an anger that burst forth again in the atrocities of 1992.

On 26 May 1944, the BBC Monitoring Service recorded Haj Amin describing Tito as "a friend of the Jews and a foe of the Prophet." In 1943 he received from Heinrich Himmler, the architect of the Holocaust, a telegram recalling for him that "the National Socialist Party had inscribed on its flag 'the extermination of world Jewry.' Our party sympathizes with the fight of the Arabs, especially the Arabs of Palestine, against the foreign Jew."

Radio Berlin later reported that Haj Amin had "arrived in Frankfurt for the purpose of visiting the Research Institute on the Jewish problem."

Did Haj Amin know about the Jewish Holocaust? According to his most meticulous biographer, Zvi Elpeleg—a former Israeli military governor of Gaza who is respected as a historian even by Haj Amin's surviving family—"his frequent, close contacts with leaders of the Nazi regime cannot have left Haj Amin with any doubt as to the fate which awaited the Jews whose emigration was prevented by his efforts." In July 1943, when the extermination camps were already in operation in Poland, Haj Amin was complaining to Joachim von Ribbentrop, the German foreign minister, about Jewish emigration from Europe to Palestine in the following words: "If there are reasons which make their removal necessary, it would be essential and infinitely preferable to send them to other countries where they would find themselves under active control as, for example, Poland. . ." Before his death, Haj Amin was to write that "the Germans settled their accounts with the Jews well before my arrival in Germany," a statement that is factually and historical untrue...

Alia al-Husseini, Haj Amin's granddaughter, recalled for me how her grandfather, in his last years, spoke of Hitler's true aims. "He said that after the Jews, the Germans would destroy the Arabs— he knew this...'


Yehuda Bauer: "Jews for Sale?: Nazi-Jewish Negotiations, 1933-1945" (Yale University Press, 1994), p.88.



Paul R. Bartrop, Eve E. Grimm: "Children of the Holocaust," (ABC-CLIO, Oct 31, 2020), p.17.



Jonathan Trigg: "Hitler's Jihadis: Muslim Volunteers of the Waffen-SS," (The History Press, Nov 30, 2011) .



Sean McMeekin: "The Berlin-Baghdad Express: The Ottoman Empire and Germany's Bid for World Power," (Harvard University Press, Sep 15, 2010), p.362.

https://books.google.com/books?id=_JImZjPDFrcC&pg=PA362 .

'The most notorious of the Mufti's death squads, the Handschar SS division, 'slaughtered 90 percent – 12,600 – of Bosnia's 14,000 Jews'.'


Haviv Kanaan, "The Mufti planned crematoriums for Jews in the Dotan Valley." HaAretz (newspaper), March 2, 1970, p. 16 :

'On the anniversary of the Balfour Declaration on November 2, 1943, "His.." organized a mass protest rally in Berlin with the participation of Muslim and Arab exiles from Morocco, Israel, Lebanon, Yemen, Mahjaz, India and Iran. Thousands of SS representatives from government ministries and branches of the Nazi party also took part in this rally, which was held in the Luftwaffe Hall and was broadcast on Radio Berlin, Athens and Belgrade. The Mufti was the keynote speaker and he said, among other things: "The Treaty of Versailles was a disaster for both the Germans and the Arabs.

But the Germans know how to get rid of the Jews, and the reason that brings us so close to Germany, and places us in their camp, is that the Germans never harmed any Muslim. And they are once again fighting our common enemy, which has persecuted Arabs and Muslims. But above all they completely solved the Jewish problem.

Oh Arabs! You never fought the Jews without that they will not lose. Time works against them, even when the Allies help them. I am happy to announce this historic day I received a telegram from the German Foreign Ministry declaring its recognition of the complete independence of the Arab states and the abolition of the Jewish national home."

This telegram was signed by von Ribbentrop. The assembly also read a telegram from SS leader Heinrich Himmler to the Mufti: "The National Socialist Party has engraved on its banner the slogan of the extermination of world Jewry. Our party supports the Arab war and especially the Palestinian Arabs on foreign Jews. Success in your war."

In 1968, 25 years after these declarations of the unclean alliance, an old Arab nobleman, who had previously been a direct friend to me, revealed to me at his home in Jericho that in that year the British authorities in Israel received information about the exemplary preparations for the entry of Rommel and North German armies. Russia to the Holy Land.

"A chill runs through my body," said Faiz Bey Idrisi, a senior Arab officer in the Mandate Police and commander of the Jerusalem District Village District. "I remember what was said in the police circles and among the Mufti's supporters in those months in case of the German occupation of the country. Haj Amin was about to enter Jerusalem at the head of his aides and soldiers of the Arab Legion, organized within the German army. His big plan was to build huge crematoria in the Dotan Valley near Nablus, such as Auschwitz, to which they were to be brought. "The Jews of Israel ('Palestine'), as well as the Jews of Iraq, Egypt, Yemen, Syria, Lebanon and even North Africa, are being brought in to be exterminated by the SS in the extermination camps in Europe."

I have thoroughly researched this topic on several trips to Germany. I met Germans, who were in the Mufti's entourage during the war years, but they all filled their mouths with water. "We do not know about it," they said. Only an old German diplomat, who during the Third Reich had the courage to refuse to join the Nazi party, told me: "I can not say for sure what was expected of the Jews of the Land of Israel, but I knew that their fate must have been bitter and terrible."

Even when the British victory at Al-Alamein and the Western Allies landed forces on the coast of North Africa, and Haj Amin felt that the plans for the crematoria had faded, he continued to shout from Berlin to his brother: "O Arabs, stand up as one man and fight for your sacred rights. It causes pleasure to Allah. It saves our honor. Allah is with you." '

Haviv Kanaan, "Matayim yeme ḥaradah: Erets-Yisrael mul tseva Romel," (Mul-eret, 1973), p. 12 (p.240) .

https://books.google.com/books?id=CwwyAQAAIAAJ&q=%D7%9E%D7%A9%D7%A8%D7%A4%D7%95%D7%AA+%D7%91%D7%A2%D7%9E%D7%A7+%D7%93%D7%95%D7%AA%D7%9F :

'A few years later, it became known that Arab figures in Israel knew about the Mufti's plan to establish Auschwitz-style crematoria in the Dotan Valley, to which the Jews of Israel and the rest of the Near East, as well as the Jews of North Africa, were to be taken.'

Daniel Siryoti, Erez Linn, "The mufti planned to build crematorium in Dotan Valley", Israel Hayom, Oct 23, 2015.



"Letter written to Grand Mufti from Himmler uncovered."

Ynet, May 30, 2017.


'The document in question is a letter of praise sent by head of the SS, Heinrich Himmler, to Palestinian leader Amin al-Husseini in the autumn of 1943 at the height of the extermination of Jews in Europe.

The archives of the National Library of Israel have revealed another document that attests to a connection between Nazi Germany and Mufti Hajj Amin al-Husseini.'


Wolfgang G. Schwanitz, "Photographic Evidence Shows Palestinian Leader Amin al-Husseini at a Nazi Concentration Camp." Tablet Mag., April 7, 2021.


'An analysis of photographs sold at a Jerusalem auction house offers new insight into the role of foreign accomplices in Hitler's Final Solution.'

al-Farhud... Masterminds like al-Kailani and al-Husseini wanted to signal, there in a 2,500-year-old community, how Arabia's Jews should be treated...

Himmler invited select Nazis and their guests to visit his concentration camp system... Al-Kailani wanted to go along to see if this system could be a model for Iraq, where there was a large Jewish community...

Franz Rademacher, for whom the mufti secured asylum in Syria after the war. Rademacher directed the deportation and killing of Serbian Jews in Belgrade; he wrote on his expense account, as the purpose of his official trip, "liquidation of Jews." He also drafted the Madagascar Plan with officials of the Vichy regime to forcibly deport Jews to the island, a French colony. Confirmed by Hitler in the spring of 1940, the idea was nevertheless abandoned because the British retained their maritime supremacy, making large transports impossible...

Hitler ordered Arabs trained in desert warfare and al-Kailani to take part. Erwin Rommel's army rolled into Egypt and was poised to invade Palestine and Iraq. On April 28, both Arabs—the Mufti carried the pan-Arab flag on his car, the Iraqi had himself addressed as az-Za'im الزعيم, Fuehrer—signed a secret letter with Berlin and Rome for joined struggle until final victory, and for liquidation of the Jewish home in Palestine. To be clear, this always meant killing Jews: This was a quadrilateral, Palestine-oriented genocide pact for "Jew-free Arab lands or empires," signed by the two Arab leaders and by the Axis foreign ministers.'


Klaus-Michael Mallmann, Martin Cüppers: "Nazi Palestine: The Plans for the Extermination of the Jews in Palestine," (Enigma Books, 2013), p. 199.


'He also frequently asked too much of the Luftwaffe, which was facing an increasing shortage of aircraft and a disastrous fuel situation.

"An air attack on Tel Aviv, the citadel of the Palestinian Jews and their emigration, has been repeatedly suggested by the Arabs, particularly the Grand Mufti, in the last six months," noted the Luftwaffe command staff in the fall of 1943.

Although Göring had personally rejected the plan on July 17, el-Husseini was not satisfied with this decision and suggested bombing Jewish targets on November 2, the anniversary of the Balfour Declaration.

When he again requested an air strike for April 1, 1944, the Germans pointed out that the Mufti had "already repeatedly proposed bomb attacks against Tel Aviv and Jerusalem in order to harm the Palestinian Jews and achieve a propagandistic effect in the Arab world with these attacks. Thus far, we have never agreed to these suggestions." '

[Conversation note by LFSt/Ic, Oct. 29, 1943, telephone conversation with 1st Lt. Zetsche regarding air attacks in the Palestinian area, BA-MA, RL 2 II/496..,

Mar. 30, 1944, proposal by the Grand Mufti for a bomb attack on Tel Aviv on April 1, BA-MA, RL 2 II/496.]


Joan Peters, "From Time Immemorial: The Origins of the Arab-Jewish Conflict Over Palestine," 1985, p.363.



Congressional Record: Proceedings and Debates... Volume 93, Part 11, United States Congress, 1947, pp. 2819-2821 [Rep. A. Sabbath].



"A safe haven: Harry S. Truman and the founding of Israel," Allis Radosh, Ronald Radosh, (HarperCollins, 2009), p, 213.


'Emil Ghouri, the head of the Arab delegation to UNSCOP, and delegates Wasef Kamal and Rasem Khalidi as "notorious for ... association with the Mufti and his Axis activities." Mufti's Jamal Husseini... had joined the Mufti in Iraq in 1939... organized a pro-Axis fifth column that led to the anti-British rebellion....'


Arye Disenchick, 'Night at House of Shukairy in Acre.' Maariv, Oct. 21, 1949, p.11


'Further investigation revealed that the hand of his brother, Ahmad Shukeiri, was involved in the murder of Dr. Anwar Shukeiri.'


"Arabic Political Memoirs and Other Studies," Cass books on the Middle East, Elie Kedourie, Professor of Politics Emeritus, (Psychology Press, 1964), p.189.



Congressional Record: Proceedings and Debates of the... Congress, 1961. p.35. United States. Congress. U.S. Government Printing Office.

https://books.google.com/books?id=SxuiouvRuwkC&focus=searchwithinvolume&q=%22Out%20for%20hitler%22&f=false .

https://books.google.com/books?id=ijg4AQAAMAAJ&q=%22Out+for+Hitler%22#v=snippet&q=%22Out%20for%20Hitler%22&f=false .

https://books.google.com/books?id=ijg4AQAAMAAJ&pg=SL1-PA5735&lpg=SL1-PA5735 :

'In 1946, Shukairy joined the "Arab Higher Committee" which was also headed by the ex Mufti. Shukairy got his start in "politics" in the early 1930s when he belonged to a group of fanatical extremists led by the ex-Mufti. This gang cooperated with the Communists and prior to the Hitler-Stalin Pact sought in every possible way to sabotage the Allied war effort against the Nazis in the Middle East. However, when Soviet Russia joined the Allies, Shukairy's group split with the communists, and went all out for Hitler.'


Congressional Record: Proceedings and Debates of the ... Congress, Volume 110, Part 22. United States. Congress. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1964, p. 525.



Congressional Record: Proceedings and Debates of the ... Congress, Volume 110, Part 22. United States. Congress. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1964, p.524-5.


https://books.google.com/books?id=8HEuAAAAIAAJ&q=snippet&q=%22shukairy%22%20%22worked%20with%20the%20Nazis%22&f=false :

'Trouble in the Middle East. Extension of Remarks Of HON. HUGE SCOTT Of PENNSYLVANIA . In the Senate of the United States. Monday, February 3, 1964 ...

Shukairy has had a remarkable history. As has been revealed ... he worked with the Nazis in the Middle East and was a henchman of the notorious Mufti of Jerusalem...'


Congressional Record: Proceedings and Debates of the ... Congress, United States Congress, 1965, p.456.

https://books.google.com/books?id=3Yah_o9r5V4C&pg=SL1-PA456 :

'Ahmed Shukairy, the self-proclaimed spokesman for the Arab refugees — a man who worked for the Nazis and their henchmen during World War II...'


Ahora, Issue 95; Issue 101; Issue 119; Issue 124; Issue 133; Issue 136; Issue 143; Issue 162; Issue 186 - Publicaciones !Ahora!, 1965 - p.9.

'LAS NOTICIAS TRAS BASTIDORES. Arabes confrontan crisis... Shukairy cooperó con el Partido Comunista de Palestina, dirigido por Moscú antes de la Segunda Guerra Mundial , Sin embargo, después que Hitler atacó a Rusia ya los comunistas en todo el mundo cambio posiciones, el feroz e impredecible Shukairy se alineo con Hitler por sus programas contra los judios.'


The Detroit Jewish News. Friday, February 03, 1967. Page 9.


'Antiwar Group Warns Public of PLO Leader Shukairy...

Recalling the pro-Hilter activities "highest levels of government" of Shukairy when he was associated with the notorious Grand Mufti of Jerusalem.

Dr. Simard said, that the Arab terrorist leader "also played a most active role in keeping tensions white hot in the Middle East and inciting the Arabs against the West."'


Bernard Lerner: "Behind The British Bludgeon," Canadian Jewish Chronicle, July 12, 1946, p.13.



"Behind Britain's Zion Conspiracy." By Bernard Lerner. The Detroit Jewish News July 12, 1946 Page 2.



"Recall of Arab Delegate from U.N. is Sought; 'saluted' Tacuara." JTA, December 3, 1962.



"Israel Urges UN Adopt Direct Peace Talk Move." The Jewish Floridian, December 21, 1962, p.1a



"Bigotry's Internationalization Leads to Tests in UN, Appeal to World to Avoid Resurgence."

'Dramatic exposes of attempts to internationalize the anti-Semitic movement...'

The Detroit Jewish News December 07, 1962.



Congress Bi-weekly, Volume 29, Issues 9-17, p.2, American Jewish Congress, 1962.



The National Jewish Monthly, Vol. 77, B'nai B'rith., 1962, p. 1.

'Review Of The Month. Anti Semitism at UN... The worst statement was made by Ahmad Shukairy, of Saudi Arabia. He said, Argentina "should be saluted" because of its violently anti-Jewish youth organization, Tacuara, and added: "Tacuara has proclaimed a crusade... we propose that Tacuara be adopted by the United Nations." This was too much even for Saudi Arabia's king Faisal, who removed Shukairy from his UN post.'


"Look Who's Apeing Hitler." The Sentinel⁩⁩, 20 December 1962. Page 9.

https://www.nli.org.il/en/newspapers/cgs/1962/12/20/01/article/19 .

'A recent recommendation by Ahmad Shukairy Saudi Arabia United Nations delegate, that the United Nations endorse and spread the propaganda of the anti-Semitic Tacuara neo-Nazi youth movement in Argentina is "shocking and reprehensible," Labor Zionist Executive Officers declated in a pointed statement last week. "To attempt to enlist United Nations in Anti-Semitic activity is not only an insult to intelligence of the U.N. delegates but a brazen desecration of the Declaration of Human Rights."

Pointing to the fact that Shukairy's outburst was promptly rebuked by the Argentinian Lucio Garcia del Sol, who disavowed and that similar denouncements came from the Chilean and other Latin-American sources, the Labor Zionist leaders stated that "The time has come for leades of all faiths and political parties as well as men of good will to unite in condemning the atempt by Arab spokesmen to revive Hitlerism's abominable use of anti-Semitism as a political tool.

"Such irresponsible mendacious talk is an affront to the memory of millions of Jewish and non-Jewish victims of Hitler's madness. It besmirches the struggle which the Free World made to eradicate the evils of Hitlerism... Once again the Arab leadership stands exposed before the world as the inheritors of Hitler's racist mantle.'


Raanan Rein: "Argentine Jews or Jewish Argentines?: Essays on Ethnicity, Identity, and Diaspora," (BRILL, Jan 25, 2010), p.185.



Y. Oron, "Middle East Record," Israel Oriental Society, Reuven Shiloah Research Center, (1961), p.188.


A. Lord, "A response to David Grossman," Israel Hayom, Aug 5, 2018. https://www.israelhayom.com/opinions/a-response-to-david-grossman/

'... to accuse Israel of being an apartheid state was Ahmad Shukeiri, a U.N. diplomat, in 1961 in the context of the Eichmann trial.'


American Jewish Yearbook 1978. (1977), p.324.



Robert Weisbrot, Robert Murciano: "The Jews of Argentina: From the Inquisition to Perón," (Jewish Publication Society of America 1979), p.255.



Raanan Rein: "Argentine Jews or Jewish Argentines?: Essays on Ethnicity, Identity, and Diaspora", (BRILL, Jan 25, 2010), p.176.



TALKS OF OUSTING ARAB; Official Accused of Leading Anti‐Semitic Campaign. The New York Times, August 9, 1964.



Congressional Record: Proceedings and Debates of the ... Congress, Volume 111, Part 12. United States. Congress. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1965. p.15915.



Yehuda Bauer: "The Jews: A Contrary People", (LIT Verlag Münster, 2014), p.135.



"Hussein Triki, Former Arab League Representative in Argentina: The Holocaust Was Invented by ..."

MEMRI, March 18, 2011.



"The Nile: histories, cultures, myths," Hagai Erlikh, I. Gershoni, (Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2000), p. 194


'Much more important was the work by the Lebanese Druze, Amir Shakib Arslan. Arslan was by far the most important figure in the context of Mussolini's infuence in the whole Middle Eastern arena. He undertook to spread the world of the Duce, and to exploit the Abyssinian crisis in order to inspire the younger generation in the Middle East to revolt against the French and the British. He hoped that such an uprising would enhance pan-Arabism, esepcially his brand, namely Arabism with a strong element of Islamic identity and solidarity. In the dozens of articles published in 1935, Arslan depicted Ethiopia as a historical enemy of Islam, an oppressor of its own Muslims, an enemy of Arab language and culture. A skilled historian, he combined the negative messages of radical Islam with the modern message of fascist propaganda.

Most of Arslan's work was published primarily in Syrian, Lebanese, and Palestinian papers; nevertheless. he had his share in the Egyptian press and was widely read in Egypt.'


The Palestine Post⁩⁩, 16 October 1939



BEIRUT. — A full account has now appeared in the local press of the visit paid to Germany by the Emir Shakib Arslan, who for the past few years has headed a Syrian nationalist propaganda service in Geneva.

The visit was described by the German broadcasting stations as evidence of Arab sympathy for Germany.

According to reliable Swiss-newspaper reports quoted in the local press the Emir met only some of the minor Nazi leaders. It is reported that Hitler at first refused to authorise the grant to him of the honorary German citizenship on the grounds that he was a Semite.

In Berlin, the Emir met another "honorary Aryan," the notorious Baron von Oppenheim who managed the German espionage service in Arab countries during the World War.

Local newspaper comment is highly unflattering to Shakib Arslan who is thought to have traded in what remains of his political integrity for a cash grant calculated to make it easier for him to maintain an expensive establishment in Geneva, where sympathizers have lately been few and far between.'


Barry Rubin, ‎Wolfgang G. Schwanitz, "Nazis, Islamists, and the Making of the Modern Middle East," Yale University Press, 2014), p. 248.


'The post as the chief Islamist in Europe was previously held by Shakib Arslan, the kaiser's and the Nazis' most consistent Arab ally who up to 1945 had been subsidized by Hitler's regime.'


Aba Gefen, "Unholy Alliance," Yuval Tal, 1975, p. 143.


'In 1941, Rashid Ali al-Kilani and his pro-Nazi officers carried out a coup against Nuri Said and, later on, Rashid Ali launched an abortive anti-British offensive.'


Robert S. Wistrich, "Holocaust Denial: The Politics of Perfidy," Walter de Gruyter, 2012, p. 225.



Alex Constantine: "Jackals: The Stench of Fascism", (TrineDay, 2016).



Calder Walton: "Empire of Secrets: British Intelligence, the Cold War, and the Twilight of Empire", (ABRAMS, 2014).



Kai Bird: "The Good Spy: The Life and Death of Robert Ames", (Broadway Books, 2015), p.86.



Richard Mather, "Hitler's war against Jews continues in 'Palestine,'" The Jerusalem Post, March 16, 2015.

https://jpost.com/blogs/the-view-from-the-uk/hitlers-war-against-jews-continues-in-palestine-394103 :

'Operation Atlas was eerily prescient of contemporary fears of terrorists obtaining biological weapons. In 1944, at the behest of Husseini, Hitler ordered a five-man team to dump a lethal toxin in the water supply of Tel Aviv. Luckily, the unit, which comprised three Germans and two Arabs, was caught by police in Jericho before they had chance to execute their plan. It is estimated that a quarter of million people would have died if the plot had succeeded.'


Fawzi al-Qawuqji (1890 - 1977), Jewish Virtual Library.



"Farhood: Krystallnacht in Baghdad, June 1, 1941."

https://zionism-israel.com/ezine/Jews_Baghdad.htm .

'Part I: Prelude.

... Hussayni and his old friend, Fawzi Kawakchi [Kaukji, Kawkji], spent a year agitating the Iraqi populace against the monarchy, the Regent Abd Al-Ilah, the British, and, of course, the Jews. They used Iraqi radio as their primary propaganda tool.'


The Detroit Jewish Chronicle and the Legal Chronicle March 07, 1947. Page 14.


"British Shut Eyes to Arab Terrorist. Allow Rebel Chieftain to Pass Through Zion... Kawkaji turned up in Iraq during the pro-Nazi coup d'etat in 1941 and fled to Berlin with the Mufti when that abortive revolt was put down."


Mati Alon, "Holocaust and Redemption." (United States: Trafford, 2003). p. 207.

https://books.google.com/books?id=u1i0dz6p9O4C&pg=PA207 .

'together with Fawzi Kaukji and Wasef Kamal, helped organize Muslim SS-units in the Balkan.'


Emmanuel Navon, "The Star and the Scepter: A Diplomatic History of Israel." (U of Nebraska Press, 2020), p. 131 .


'In September 1947, the Arab League established an Arab Liberation Army. It was led by Fawzi al-Qawuqji, who had been in charge of broadcasting Nazi propaganda in the Arab world during Second World War. Al-Husseini's chief bomb-maker, Fawzi al-Kutub, had learned bomb construction in an SS course in Nazi Germany.'


Bennî Môrîs, "Righteous Victims: A History of the Zionist-Arab Conflict, 1881-1999," (Knopf, 1999), p.201 .


'But the Husseinis' chief bomb maker, Fawzi al-Kutub, had learned his craft in an SS course in Nazi Germany.'

Adam LeBor, "City of Oranges," (2017) .

https://books.google.com/books?id=wDpJDgAAQBAJ&pg=PT162 .

'His chief bomb-maker, Fawzi al-Kutub, had trained on an SS course in Nazi Germany.'


'The Record of Collaboration of King Farouk of Egypt with the Nazis and Their Ally, the Mufti: The Official Nazi Records of the King's Alliance and the Mufti's Plans for Bombing Jerusalem and Tel Aviv: Memorandum Submitted to the United Nations, June, 1948.' Nation Associates (New York, N.Y.), United Nations. Nation Associates, 1948. https://books.google.com/books/about/The_Record_of_Collaboration_of_King_Faro.html?id=tdhmAAAAMAAJ. http://nasser.bibalex.org/Data/Docs/BritishDocumentsMerged///FO_371_69271-merged.pdf.

Shelomo Alfassa: 'Reference Guide to the Nazis and Arabs During the Holocaust. A Concise Guide to the Relationship and Conspiracy of the Nazis and the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem in North Africa and the Middle East During the Era of the Holocaust'. International Sephardic Leadership Council, 2006. pp. 15-17 .


'... that the Mufti for the past six months had been proposing an attack on Jerusalem and the Headquarters of the Jewish Agency by air and an attack on Tel Aviv...'


Oscar Pinkus, "The War Aims and Strategies of Adolf Hitler," (McFarland, Incorporated, Publishers, 2005). p. 161. http://books.google.com/books?id=gPnjXC1lEJ8C&pg=PA161

'With the outbreak of World War II nearly the entire Muslim world turned to Nazi Germany for rescue from British imperialism, oblivious to the racial policies and kind of "independence" they would enjoy under the Axis boot. The sympathies for Hitler extended all the way from the Islamic Bosnians and Albanians in Europe to the Arab countries in Africa and Asia, including the Shiites in Iran.

Thus as Rommel approached the Egyptian border King Farouk sent Hitler a message welcoming the event and expressing the hope of being liberated from the British yoke (Hillgruber, 1965, 472).'


New Leader. (1953). Vol. 36. Pt 2. p.7. New Leader Pub. Association.


'Sadat... "You have been defeated, but in fact one should regard you as the real victor: There will be no peace in the world until Germany again takes first place. Your main mistake was in opening too many fronts, but everything has been forgiven, for you are a shining example of belief in one's fatherland and people. You are eternal , and we shall not be surprised if we see you again, or a second Hitler..." '


Isaiah L. Kenen (1975). "Near East Report." Vol. 19. p. 78.


'Sadat's membership in the fanatical Moslem Brotherhood; his collaboration with the Nazis in World War II; his 1953 statement that if Hitler were to rise from the dead, he would say "Dear Hitler , I welcome you back with all my heart...'


"La Reforma", Santiago, (08) 13 de abril, 1933.


"Popular Chilean Newspaper Charges Arab Publication with Incitement Against Jews". Jewish Telegraphic Agency. August 1, 1949


Anti Jewish Activities Arabs In Argentina, DAIA, 1958.



National Lampoon, 1973, p.58. https://books.google.com/books?id=wk0oAQAAMAAJ&focus=searchwithinvolume&q=nakhleh+%22lampoon%22


Jewish Observer and Middle East Review, Volume 2, p.7, William Samuel & Company Limited, 1972.



The American Spectator, Volume 19, 1986, p.20.



Kenneth Saul Stern: "Holocaust Denial," (American Jewish Committee, 1993), p.170.



Ian Barnes, "Propaganda Spurs Invitation to Join Rising White Army." The Jewish Floridian and Shofar of Greater Hollywood. October 29, 1982. Page 7-B.



The Arab League's Propaganda Campaign in the U.S. Against the Establishment of a Jewish State - 1944-1947. Rickenbacher Daniel. Israel Studies. Volume 25, Issue 1. Spring 2020.


Col (Res.) Dr. Raphael G. Bouchnik-Chen, "Palestinian Arab Volunteers in the British Army in WWII: A Reality Check," Besa , December 9, 2019.


'... professor Mustafa Abbasi views that history differently. In April 2019, he published an article (in Hebrew) titled "Palestinians fighting Against Nazis: The Story of Palestinian Volunteers in the Second World War" (Cathedra Quarterly). ....

Taking this claim for granted, the Israeli leftist daily Haaretz seized the opportunity to ridicule PM Benjamin Netanyahu's ...

Notwithstanding Abbasi's claim to have based his research on a variety of primary and secondary sources, he seems to have chosen his sources selectively, presumably to service the theory of a significant degree of Palestinian Arab resistance to the Nazis. Neither the quantitative nor the qualitative aspect of this theory is supported by the evidence.

Gen. Archibald Wavell, commander of the British forces in the Middle East, opposed the formation of a Jewish regiment in the British army. According to historian Marcel Roubicek, the British High Commissioner for Palestine also feared that Jewish enlistment would inflame Arab anger. To solve that problem, he made it a condition that Jews wishing to join up find an equivalent number of Palestinian Arab volunteers to join up as well.

To accomplish this, the Jews of the Yishuv offered financial compensation to Palestinian Arabs to enlist. They ultimately succeeded in raising enough manpower from both communities to permit the formation of a Jewish regiment.

The opportunity for Palestinian Arabs to join the ranks of the British Army was thus a direct outcome of the Jewish desire to render its utmost assistance to Britain in every sphere of war activity, a point Abbasi ignores.

He is similarly fuzzy on Palestinian Arab motivation. He states, "Most of the [Palestinian Arab] volunteers were villagers and of the urban lower class, and...the economic motive played a central role in volunteering," noting that these "motives...differed from [that of] their Jewish friends, who enlisted in the army mainly because of opposition to Nazi Germany and its racial policy toward their people, besides other motives such as the revival of a Jewish army, and the serious employment situation in the country at the beginning of the war."

Compensation as the prevailing motivation for Palestinian Arab enlistment is supported by the evidence, but Abbasi claims their motives were in fact manifold and varied. Some Palestinian Arabs, he states, enlisted for ideological reasons, to express their opposition to Nazi ideology and loyalty to the British and their values. This motive was especially true of the urban elite and the intellectuals, he alleges, who were highly influenced by British education and culture. He does not substantiate this point sufficiently and ignores available evidence documenting contemporary Palestinian contempt for the British Army (see, for example, Prof. Kimberly Katz's A Young Palestinian's Diary 1941-1945, The Life of Sami Amr).

Abbasi laments that "there is hardly any reference to the thousands of Palestinian volunteers, some of whom fell in battle, while others are still listed as missing in action, and no commemoration of the fallen can be found anywhere." He suggests this "evil" is explained by "what the Palestinian people experienced during the Nakba and its aftermath, the destruction of archives and records in addition to the loss of personal documents, and the fact that no organization was established to commemorate the volunteers and their deeds." He thus accuses Israel of covering up the Palestinian Arab role in defeating the Nazis.

It should be noted that Abbasi persistently uses the term "Palestinians" rather than "Palestinian Arabs" in his article, starting with the title. This manipulation services the popular narrative denying any linkage between the Jewish People and Palestine. In her book World War II – The Story of a Jewish Soldier, Jewish Women of Mandatory Palestine Serving in the British Army, Esther Herlitz (later an Israeli diplomat and politician who served as a member of the Knesset) wrote, "As far as the British were concerned, we from the Jewish Yishuv, and some Arabs, were Palestinians." '


Michael J Cohen, "Britain's Moment in Palestine: Retrospect and Perspectives, 1917-1948," (Routledge, 2014).



Note: Opinions expressed in comments are those of the authors alone and not necessarily those of Daniel Pipes. Original writing only, please. Comments are screened and in some cases edited before posting. Reasoned disagreement is welcome but not comments that are scurrilous, off-topic, commercial, disparaging religions, or otherwise inappropriate. For complete regulations, see the "Guidelines for Reader Comments".

Follow Daniel Pipes

Facebook   Twitter   RSS   Join Mailing List

All materials by Daniel Pipes on this site: © 1968-2024 Daniel Pipes. daniel.pipes@gmail.com and @DanielPipes

Support Daniel Pipes' work with a tax-deductible donation to the Middle East Forum.Daniel J. Pipes

(The MEF is a publicly supported, nonprofit organization under section 501(c)3 of the Internal Revenue Code.

Contributions are tax deductible to the full extent allowed by law. Tax-ID 23-774-9796, approved Apr. 27, 1998.

For more information, view our IRS letter of determination.)