In an article today, "Turkish Support for ISIS," I made the case that the AKP government of Prime Minister Erdoğan stands behind the rise of the Islamic State in Iraq and Syria. This blog pursues the topic with new proofs.
To begin with, Michael Rubin has simultaneously with me published an article on this same topic, "Turkey: Al-Qaeda Not Terrorists."
June 23, 2014 update: Salih Muslim, the co-chairman of Syrian's dominant Kurdish organization, the Democratic Union Party (PYD), explains his basis for saying that the Turkish government has been supporting ISIS. Excerpts:
"ISIS itself says it gets Turkey's support. Its media gives details of how they get assistance from Turkey and how their militants reach them via Turkey."
Why the seizure of hostages in Mosul? "Some groups within ISIS could have done it without informing the others. For their safety or to blackmail Turkey not to alter its moderate approach to ISIS. It could well be an agreed scenario."
"At the end of May, our forces attacked Al Rawiya village under ISIS control. We found Turkish documents on the bodies of ISIS militants we killed there. … Various documents attesting to their presence in Turkey."
"Let's assume it is not the official state that is assisting ISIS, but the 'deep state' or other elements. In that case, why don't Turkish officials investigate the evidence, documents and other data we have been providing to them? Why don't they enter into solidarity with us against ISIS? There are so-called humanitarian relief organizations in Turkey that help ISIS. The Turkish government tells us millions of tourists come to Turkey and they can't check all [of them] one by one. But we say, 'We have proof. Those organizations meet them at the airport, take them to the border and across to Syria.' We have said all this but they don't take action.
June 24, 2014 update: Turfan Aydin, a Turkish trucker who has been working the route to Syria for years, tells a reporter that "For three years, we have seen ISIS flags in Syria, and that is because of Turkey. Turkey let them in."
June 25, 2014 update: Jonathan Schanzer of the Foundation for the Defense of Democracies shows new aspects of this topic in "An Unhelpful Ally: ISIS and other violent factions have benefited from Turkey's loose border policies."
The ISIS crisis in Iraq is inextricably tied to the dangerous and permissive border policies of Mr. Erdoğan's government in Turkey over the past two years. It was only last year that U.S. President Barack Obama chided Mr. Erdoğan for "letting arms and fighters flow into Syria indiscriminately and sometimes to the wrong rebels, including anti-Western jihadists."
Mr. Obama wasn't alone in that assessment. As Human Rights Watch noted in an October report, "Many foreign fighters operating in northern Syria gain access to Syria via Turkey, from which they also smuggle their weapons, obtain money and other supplies, and sometimes retreat to for medical treatment."
Mr. Erdoğan has denied these allegations and vowed to prevent aid from flowing to jihadists in Syria. But media and law-enforcement reports contradict his statements. "The relative accessibility of the Syrian-Turkish border explains" why so many jihadists have made their way to Syria, the Journal reported earlier this month, citing Europol.
ISIS has found other transit points into Syria. But it's clear that this group, and other violent factions, have benefited from Turkey's Wild Wild East. As Thomas Hegghammer of the Norwegian Defense Research Establishment told the website Syria Deeply in December, "Turkey is to Syria now what Pakistan was to Afghanistan in the 1990s."
June 26, 2014 update: İslami Giyim (Islamic dress), a shop in Istanbul's Bağcılar district, sells T-shirts with the ISIS emblem, though the owner denies any ties with the group. He told the BBC:
ISIS also uses it. We use it only because it is Islamic. We have no relation whatsoever to ISIS. If someone on the street were to see this it might bring to mind terrorism, but for some it would bring the Prophet. … I am proud to sell it. In the end, every clean job gets dirtied, but we are not going to discard it just because others are using it.
June 27, 2014 update: The families of 163 Turkish citizens have reported to the security forces that their relatives joined ISIS in in Syria.
July 3, 2014 update: Sayed Abdel-Meguid, Al-Ahram's excellent Turkey correspondent, provides more evidence in "ISIS, Erdogan and kidnapped Turks." In particular, he quotes Abdel-Latif Sener, one of the founders of the AKP who left politics some years ago:
The terrorists of ISIS come over from Syria and Iraq to dine on kebab in southern Turkish restaurants. Then, after rounding off their meals with a cup of tea, they head back to where they came from.
Also of interest, Abdel-Meguid draws an interview with an ISIS member in the Yurt newspaper where the member
spoke of the huge support his organisation received from the powers-that-be in Ankara. Were it not for that support, ISIS would not be where it is today in terms of number of combatants and the vital areas under its control, he said.
As though to corroborate his remarks, that ISIS militant was interviewed in Anatolia where he and fellow militants are being treated for wounds they received in battles in Syria. It should be added that they are not just being treated in hospitals near the Turkish border but also in public and private hospitals in Ankara, Istanbul and Izmir.
Observers estimate that there are from 2,500 to 3,000 ISIS members inside Turkey. Yet, the government has no intelligence on its possible sleeping cells, on how it recruits terrorists, and on where and how it gets its money. It also has no detailed information on the organisation's links with other Sunni countries, apart from Qatar.
Abdel-Meguid also quotes an editorial in Cumhuriyet: "The Turkish hostages in Mosul, who now number 95, are not being held by ISIS but by the AKP."
July 5, 2014 update: Firatnews, a Kurdish source, reports under "Turkish support for ISIS continues" about the accusations of Ahmed Kurdi, the leader of the Kurdish Front Brigade:
Hajji Ahmed Kurdi emphasised that Turkey had maintained its support for ISIS, saying they had definite proof and documentation of this support. He added that some of the Kurdish Front's fighters and supporters who had been captured by ISIS had been interrogated by Turkish officers, saying: "all our people said that Turkish officers had taken part in interrogation. This proves support is continuing. They pretend to be in conflict with this organisation, but this is not true."
Hajji Ahmed Kurdi said that ISIS crossed the Turkish border at will. "In order to surround Azaz they use the Çobanbey – Jarablus stretch [50 km long] of the border openly. Sometimes they cross the border as al-Nusra Front or Liwa al-Tawhid fighters. They don't even feel the need to act in a clandestine way, they do it openly."
July 7, 2014 update: An article in today's Turkish newspaper Aydınlık, "MİT'ten IŞİD'e paralı asker" ("Retired Turkish Soldiers Fighting for ISIS") has also appeared in English translation:
One group of retired Turkish soldiers from the Special Forces Command are reportedly fighting together with militants of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIS) in Iraq, a fact that shockingly even PM Erdoğan knows.
The soldiers are believed to be joining ISIS in exchange for high wages. Some of the anonymous colleagues of the soldiers have identified them from images taken during combat. The investigations have discovered that the Turkish Intelligence Organization (MİT by its Turkish initials) sent the retired soldiers to Iraq to support the terrorism in the region.
One anonymous witness informed Aydınlık Newspaper that: "These events began during the Libya operation. It was so obvious that some even made comments about it on TV. MİT controls the operation. They did the same in Syria, as well. They also took part in the attack by the opposition forces in Keseb. Most of those with masks are from this group. They keep their masks on even in hot weather to avoid being recognized. They are now side by side with ISIS in Mosul. They act like legionaries. It has become explicit when some took their masks off."
It was also claimed that some high ranking commanders in the Turkish Armed Forces also know about the AKP government's provocation of terrorism in the region, even if they do not fully approve. As it can be imagined, the incidents of the Turkish flag being taken down in Diyarbakır and Turkish diplomats kidnapped in Mosul were all in accordance with the plans of MİT.
Another anecdote regarding the issue is that the logistic base of the whole operation is the central Anatolian province Konya, from where required military equipment is provided and handed over to ISIS.
July 8, 2014 update: Salih Muslim, co-president of Syria's Kurdish Democratic Union Party (PYD) accuses "certain institutions inside the Turkish state" of permitting ISIS-linked jihadis to access Syrian territory via Turkey and of treating ISIS wounded fighters in Turkish hospitals.
July 9, 2014 update: Turkey's Foreign Minister Ahmet Davutoğlu, reports Aydınlık, appeared on a TV programme on July 8, to talk about Iraq and "failed to even mention the name of terror organization ISIS, which invaded Mosul and murdered large numbers of Iraqi Turkmans living in the area. Davutoğlu instead stated that the photo of Turkish PM Tayyip Erdoğan and Masoud Barzani was the most important event in the century."
July 13, 2014 update: Two Kurdish accusations of Turkish governmental help to ISIS:
(1) The Kurdistan Democratic Communities' Union (KCK) accuses the Republic of Turkey of opening its borders to ISIS, "ensuring their crossing into Rojava and setting them against the people of Kobani," and also of cooperating with ISIS.
(2) People's Democracy Party (HDP) co-chair Figen Yuksekdağ says that ISIS fighters wounded in attacks on Rojave were provided with medical treatment in Hatay.
The backward and murderous IS gang has been able to use conveniently Turkish territory as a logistical base and move easily back and forth across the border. Those gangs have been given this opportunity directly by the Turkish state and the Justice and Development Party (AKP) government. The people, however, are unable to cross the same borders. … Two days ago, we obtained information that their wounded were brought to Hatay. Wounded members of the IS gangs have been brought to the Mustafa Kemal University Hospital in Hatay and treated there. We have information that this is still continuing.
July 14, 2014 update: From the Turkish newspaper Aydınlık, "MİT Transporting Terrorists to Syria":
The Syria-Turkey border by the Turkish Intelligence Organization MİT together with their weapons as a part of a AKP government plan to provoke clashes in Syria. This scandalous truth about the AKP government was revealed during an operation in the south of Turkey on the 10 January when police forces stopped a bus on the way to Syrian border and seized weapons which had been forgotten in the trunk. As a result of the testimonies of bus drivers in the region, police found out that terrorists had been taken to Syrian border by MİT.
The fact that terrorists are being supported by the AKP government has put MİT and gendarmerie forces and prosecutors in the region at odds with one another over the past few months. Some anonymous officials investigating the case told Aydınlık Newspaper that an executive of the bus company carrying the terrorists and ammunition to Syria had showed an agreement with MİT, which was also taken into the scope of the investigation.
One of the officials claimed that the government tried to cover up this case by putting the blame on the Gülen Gang, however Prosecutor Mustafa Sırlı was suspended from his duty as he was chasing after the investigation. At the same time, the video proving that MİT was providing transportation and arms to terrorists is believed to have disappeared among the official reports.
July 19, 2014 addendum: An Albanian expert on international security, Ilir Kulla, said that hundreds of jihadis from Kosovo, Macedonia, and Bosnia-Herzegovina have gone to fight for ISIS via Turkey. "Turkey is the main waypoint, but not the only road. Even Iraq and Lebanon are used, but this is nothing new. All you need to do is look at Turkish Airlines flights for Tirana-İstanbul-Antakya and you can see the reality."
Related Topics: Iraq, Radical Islam, Syria, Turkey and Turks
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