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Thanks to: THE ANCIENT ONES

Reader comment on item: Aztecs, Moors, and Christians: Festivals of Reconquest in Mexico and Spain
in response to reader comment: Response to Connection between the Moors and ancient civilization in the America's?

Submitted by Ameral Bucky Mayyo El (United States), Sep 2, 2013 at 11:13

THE MU, MUUR, MOORS, WASHITAW THE INDIGENOUS INDEPENDENT NATION'S OF THE WESTERN GATE UAXASHAKTUN

"The Ancient Ones,"

sovereignty

Under the TREATY of PEACE and LOVE presented on

MAY,12 1784

There is an untold and a sort of hush hush history about the Moors thats like a big secret. The truth is the the Moors were, and are, the aboriginal and indigenous inhabitants of the North, Central, South America, Mexico, Canada and all of the adjoining islands. The ancient Moorish empire extended at one time from Africa & Europe to the America's anciently referred to as Amexem. The moors inhabited the shores of Africa & the America's (North,South & Central Mexico and all the adjoining islands ) when the lands were still connected before the great earthquake which caused the great Atlantic Ocean.

The Moors are those descendants of the Africans whom inhabited the Northwestern & Southwestern shores of Africa. The present Moroccan Empire not kingdom (which is in the east) Al-Moroc was established on the shores of America before the kingdom of Morocco established in 1958. There was a Man known as "Noble Drew Ali" a.k.a. "Sheik Shariyf Abdul Ali" who represented the Moors at the Pan American conference in Havana Cuba in 1928. The Moors were recognized as the de jure holder of the titles of grants to the land (research Moors and Spanish land grants) seek out the Marrakesh treaty between America and the Emperor of the "Moroccan Empire", which comprises all the Moorish kingdoms from America (Al Moroc), Africa, and any where in the diaspora. (seek out books by: Ivan Van Sertima, Sheik Aki Bey, Budgett Meakins, Stanley Lane Poole, Taj Tarik Bey, Dawiyd Ali El, Empress Verdiacee, Hakim Bey, Heru Raneisi El,).................

Article 6 - Debts, Supremacy, Oaths U.S. Constitution

All Debts contracted and Engagements entered into, before the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be as valid against the United States under this Constitution, as under the Confederation.

This Constitution, and the Laws of the United States which shall be made in Pursuance thereof; and all Treaties made, or which shall be made, under the Authority of the United States, shall be the supreme Law of the Land; and the Judges in every State shall be bound thereby, any Thing in the Constitution or Laws of any State to the Contrary notwithstanding.

The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the Members of the several State Legislatures, and all executive and judicial Officers, both of the United States and of the several States, shall be bound by Oath or Affirmation, to support this Constitution; but no religious Test shall ever be required as a Qualification to any Office or public Trust under the United States.

T To all Persons to whom these Presents shall come or be made known- Whereas the United States of America in Congress assembled by their Commission bearing date the twelvth day of May One thousand Seven hundred and Eighty four thought proper to constitute John Adams, Benjamin Franklin and Thomas Jefferson their Ministers Plenipotentiary, giving to them or a Majority of them full Powers to confer, treat & negotiate with the Ambassador, Minister or Commissioner of His Majesty the Emperor of Morocco concerning a Treaty of Amity and Commerce, to make & receive propositions for such Treaty and to conclude and sign the same, transmitting it to the United States in Congress assembled for their final Ratification, And by one other (commission bearing date the Eleventh day of March One thousand Seven hundred & Eighty five did further empower the said Ministers Plenipotentiary or a majority of them, by writing under the* hands and Seals to appoint such Agent in the said Business as they might think proper with Authority under the directions and Instructions of the said Ministers to commence & prosecute the said Negotiations & Conferences for the said Treaty provided that the said Treaty should be signed by the said Ministers: And Whereas, We the said John Adams & Thomas Jefferson two of the said Ministers Plenipotentiary (the said Benjamin Franklin being absent) by writing under the Hand and Seal of the said John Adams at London October the fifth, One thousand Seven hundred and Eighty five, & of the said Thomas Jefferson at Paris October the Eleventh of the same Year, did appoint Thomas Barclay, Agent in the Business aforesaid, giving him the Powers therein, which by the said second Commission we were authorized to give, and the said Thomas Barclay in pursuance thereof, hath arranged Articles for a Treaty of Amity and Commerce between the United States of America and His Majesty the Emperor of Morocco, which Articles written in the Arabic Language, confirmed by His said Majesty the Emperor of Morocco & seal'd with His Royal Seal, being translated into the Language of the said United States of America, together with the Attestations thereto annexed are in the following Words, To Wit.

In the name of Almighty God,

This is a Treaty of Peace and Friendship established between us and the United States of America, which is confirmed, and which we have ordered to be written in this Book and sealed with our Royal Seal at our Court of Morocco on the twenty fifth day of the blessed Month of Shaban, in the Year One thousand two hundred, trusting in God it will remain permanent.

.1.

We declare that both Parties have agreed that this Treaty consisting of twenty five Articles shall be inserted in this Book and delivered to the Honorable Thomas Barclay, the Agent of the United States now at our Court, with whose Approbation it has been made and who is duly authorized on their Part, to treat with us concerning all the Matters contained therein.

.2.

If either of the Parties shall be at War with any Nation whatever, the other Party shall not take a Commission from the Enemy nor fight under their Colors.

.3.

If either of the Parties shall be at War with any Nation whatever and take a Prize belonging to that Nation, and there shall be found on board Subjects or Effects belonging to either of the Parties, the Subjects shall be set at Liberty and the Effects returned to the Owners. And if any Goods belonging to any Nation, with whom either of the Parties shall be at War, shall be loaded on Vessels belonging to the other Party, they shall pass free and unmolested without any attempt being made to take or detain them.

.4.

A Signal or Pass shall be given to all Vessels belonging to both Parties, by which they are to be known when they meet at Sea, and if the Commander of a Ship of War of either Party shall have other Ships under his Convoy, the Declaration of the Commander shall alone be sufficient to exempt any of them from examination.

.5.

If either of the Parties shall be at War, and shall meet a Vessel at Sea, belonging to the other, it is agreed that if an examination is to be made, it shall be done by sending a Boat with two or three Men only, and if any Gun shall be Bred and injury done without Reason, the offending Party shall make good all damages.

.6.

If any Moor shall bring Citizens of the United States or their Effects to His Majesty, the Citizens shall immediately be set at Liberty and the Effects restored, and in like Manner, if any Moor not a Subject of these Dominions shall make Prize of any of the Citizens of America or their Effects and bring them into any of the Ports of His Majesty, they shall be immediately released, as they will then be considered as under His Majesty's Protection.

.7.

If any Vessel of either Party shall put into a Port of the other and have occasion for Provisions or other Supplies, they shall be furnished without any interruption or molestation.

If any Vessel of the United States shall meet with a Disaster at Sea and put into one of our Ports to repair, she shall be at Liberty to land and reload her cargo, without paying any Duty whatever.

.9.

If any Vessel of the United States shall be cast on Shore on any Part of our Coasts, she shall remain at the disposition of the Owners and no one shall attempt going near her without their Approbation, as she is then considered particularly under our Protection; and if any Vessel of the United States shall be forced to put into our Ports, by Stress of weather or otherwise, she shall not be compelled to land her Cargo, but shall remain in tranquillity untill the Commander shall think proper to proceed on his Voyage.

.10.

If any Vessel of either of the Parties shall have an engagement with a Vessel belonging to any of the Christian Powers within gunshot of the Forts of the other, the Vessel so engaged shall be defended and protected as much as possible untill she is in safety; And if any American Vessel shall be cast on shore on the Coast of Wadnoon (1) or any coast thereabout, the People belonging to her shall be protected, and assisted untill by the help of God, they shall be sent to their Country.

.11.

If we shall be at War with any Christian Power and any of our Vessels sail from the Ports of the United States, no Vessel belonging to the enemy shall follow untill twenty four hours after the Departure of our Vessels; and the same Regulation shall be observed towards the American Vessels sailing from our Ports.-be their enemies Moors or Christians.

.12.

If any Ship of War belonging to the United States shall put into any of our Ports, she shall not be examined on any Pretence whatever, even though she should have fugitive Slaves on Board, nor shall the Governor or Commander of the Place compel them to be brought on Shore on any pretext, nor require any payment for them.

.13.

If a Ship of War of either Party shall put into a Port of the other and salute, it shall be returned from the Fort, with an equal Number of Guns, not with more or less.

.14.

The Commerce with the United States shall be on the same footing as is the Commerce with Spain or as that with the most favored Nation for the time being and their Citizens shall be respected and esteemed and have full Liberty to pass and repass our Country and Sea Ports whenever they please without interruption.

.15.

Merchants of both Countries shall employ only such interpreters, & such other Persons to assist them in their Business, as they shall think proper. No Commander of a Vessel shall transport his Cargo on board another Vessel, he shall not be detained in Port, longer than he may think proper, and all persons employed in loading or unloading Goods or in any other Labor whatever, shall be paid at the Customary rates, not more and not less.

.16.

In case of a War between the Parties, the Prisoners are not to be made Slaves, but to be exchanged one for another, Captain for Captain, Officer for Officer and one private Man for another; and if there shall prove a deficiency on either side, it shall be made up by the payment of one hundred Mexican Dollars for each Person wanting; And it is agreed that all Prisoners shall be exchanged in twelve Months from the Time of their being taken, and that this exchange may be effected by a Merchant or any other Person authorized by either of the Parties.

.17.

Merchants shall not be compelled to buy or Sell any kind of Goods but such as they shall think proper; and may buy and sell all sorts of Merchandise but such as are prohibited to the other Christian Nations.

.18.

All goods shall be weighed and examined before they are sent on board, and to avoid all detention of Vessels, no examination shall afterwards be made, unless it shall first be proved, that contraband Goods have been sent on board, in which Case the Persons who took the contraband Goods on board shall be punished according to the Usage and Custom of the Country and no other Person whatever shall be injured, nor shall the Ship or Cargo incur any Penalty or damage whatever.

.19.

No vessel shall be detained in Port on any presence whatever, nor be obliged to take on board any Article without the consent of the Commander, who shall be at full Liberty to agree for the Freight of any Goods he takes on board.

.20.

If any of the Citizens of the United States, or any Persons under their Protection, shall have any disputes with each other, the Consul shall decide between the Parties and whenever the Consul shall require any Aid or Assistance from our Government to enforce his decisions it shall be immediately granted to him.

.21.

If a Citizen of the United States should kill or wound a Moor, or on the contrary if a Moor shall kill or wound a Citizen of the United States, the Law of the Country shall take place and equal Justice shall be rendered, the Consul assisting at the Tryal, and if any Delinquent shall make his escape, the Consul shall not be answerable for him in any manner whatever.

.22.

If an American Citizen shall die in our Country and no Will shall appear, the Consul shall take possession of his Effects, and if there shall be no Consul, the Effects shall be deposited in the hands of some Person worthy of Trust, untill the Party shall appear who has a Right to demand them, but if the Heir to the Person deceased be present, the Property shall be delivered to him without interruption; and if a Will shall appear, the Property shall descend agreeable to that Will, as soon as the Consul shall declare the Validity thereof.

.23.

The Consuls of the United States of America shall reside in any Sea Port of our Dominions that they shall think proper; And they shall be respected and enjoy all the Privileges which the Consuls of any other Nation enjoy, and if any of the Citizens of the United States shall contract any Debts or engagements, the Consul shall not be in any Manner accountable for them, unless he shall have given a Promise in writing for the payment or fulfilling thereof, without which promise in Writing no Application to him for any redress shall be made.

.24.

If any differences shall arise by either Party infringing on any of the Articles of this Treaty, Peace and Harmony shall remain notwithstanding in the fullest force, untill a friendly Application shall be made for an Arrangement, and untill that Application shall be rejected, no appeal shall be made to Arms. And if a War shall break out between the Parties, Nine Months shall be granted to all the Subjects of both Parties, to dispose of their Effects and retire with their Property. And it is further declared that whatever indulgences in Trade or otherwise shall be granted to any of the Christian Powers, the Citizens of the United States shall be equally entitled to them.

.25.

This Treaty shall continue in full Force, with the help of God for Fifty Years.

We have delivered this Book into the Hands of the before-mentioned Thomas Barclay on the first day of the blessed Month of Ramadan, in the Year One thousand two hundred.

I certify that the annex'd is a true Copy of the Translation made by Issac Cardoza Nunez, Interpreter at Morocco, of the treaty between the Emperor of Morocco and the United States of America.

THOS BARCLAY Under Mohammed III, Morocco became the first country to recognize the United States as an independent nation, in 1777.[1] President George Washington wrote Mohammed in 1789 asking him for aid in allowing American ships to navigate

(1) Or Ouadnoun, on the Atlantic coast, about latitude 29° N.

o all Persons to whom these Presents shall come or be made known:
Where The present United states of America, being a federally incorporated state, a foreign corporation to the original 13 colonies (the only leg of legality the United states of America had to stand on, is a statutory system "that has done little but to rob its own citizens of their liberties, keep them under control, and keep them fearful of their own government." Despite the distortions of his-story, many scholars and people of goodwill have acknowledged, and continue to acknowledge, much of the great evil and wrong-doing that stain the pages of United States history. The National Archives and many other references hold information bearing witness to a Truth not printed in the textbooks we read and those our children and grandchildren are fed.

tThe Empress and delegates have traveled to Geneva... In 1993 the Washitaw Nation's grant application was received as from a sovereign body and was officially acknowledged with the file number 215/93, and was entered in the United Nations' Indigenous People's Registry (as the "Oldest Indigenous People on Earth").

In the name of our ancestors, of "The Ancient Ones," and of the Washitaw Creed of Love, Truth, Peace, Freedom, and Justice, I welcome your Love on behalf of "The Oldest Indigenous People on Earth" and Her Emperial Highness Verdiacee "Tiari" Washitaw- Turner Goston El-Bey.

Dr. Henry L. N. Anderson El-Bey, Minister of Education, Uaxashaktun (Empire Washitaw) de Dugdamoundyah Copyright © 1987, 1993, 2002 by Uaxashaktun (Moorish Washitaw Empire). All Rights Reserved.

Posted by : Ato-Kwanukum: Rh-El(C)TM All rights reserved U.C.C. 1-308 at 12:56 PM

12.
If By 1312, Mansa Musa's brother Sultan Abu Bakri II of Mali made his second expedition on the Atlantic ocean. In 1324 on his famous journey to Hajj, Mansa Musa reported in Cairo that his brother had left him in charge of Mali. Anthropologists have proven that the Mandinkas under Abu Bakri explored many parts of North America via the Mississippi and other river systems. At Four Corners, Arizona writings show that they even brought elephants from Africa to the area.

In 1492, Columbus had two captains of Muslim origin during his first voyage, one named Martin Alonso Pinzon the captain of the Pinta, and his brother Vicente Yanex Pinzon the captain of the Nina. They were wealthy expert ship outfitters who helped organize Columbus' expedition and repaired the flagship Santa Maria. The Pinzon family was related to Abuzayan Muhammad III, the Moroccan Sultan of the Marinid Dynasty (1196-1465).

October 21, 1492, Columbus admitted in his papers that while his ship was sailing near Gibara on the northeast coast of Cuba, he saw a Mosque on the top of a beautiful mountain. Ruins of Mosques and minarets with inscriptions of Qur'anic verses have been discovered in Cuba, Mexico, Texas, and Nevada.

In 1527, the Spanish explorer Panfilo de Narva'ez left Spain for the Americas. In his fleet he had five ships and six hundred people in his company. The expedition met with many hardships. Several ships were destroyed by a West Indies, hurricane and a group of Indians killed a large number of the remaining members of the party. Afterward, when only a few members of the expedition were left, Cabeza de Vaca, the former treasurer of Narva'ez took up the leadership of the remaining members of the party with Estevanico being among them.

Estevanico was called an Arab Negro, a Muslim who came from Azamore on the Atlantic Coast of Morocco. He was among the first two persons to reach the west coast of Mexico in an exploring overland expedition from Florida to the Pacific Coast. It's reported that Estevanico acted as a guide and it took them nine years to reach Mexico City where they told stories of their travels.

In 1538, Estevanico lead an expedition from Mexico with Friar Marco, in search of the fabled Seven Cities of Cibolia, in which time he discovered Arizona and New Mexico. He was the first member of a different race reported to have visited the North Mexican Pueblos. He was killed in the city of Cibolia, one of the Seven Cities of the Zuni Indians, which is now New Mexico. Friar Marco, while following Estevanico's trail to Cibolia, learned of his murder from an Indian messenger.

From 1566-1587 Spain kept and maintained a military outpost and settlement called Santa Elena on the southern tip of Parris Island, SC. Portuguese were known to be among the Spaniards at Santa Elena. In Spain 1568 the Alpujarra uprising of the Moriscos (Muslims' who were forcibly converted to Catholicism) gave cause to another wave of Portuguese Moriscos to leave Spain.

In 1600, the first Melungeons were reported in the southern Appalachian valleys. As English and Scotch-Irish settlers moved in, they pushed the Melungeons into the mountains of North Carolina, and into Tennessee, Kentucky, and Virginia. The Melungeons were the first people, aside from Native Americans to penetrate so deeply into the Appalachian region. Many of the Melungeons were of primarily Portuguese ancestry, with North African and Indian traits. Among the early Portuguese were the Moriscos of Spain who were escaping persecution. Today there are still some Melungeons living secretively and many have assimilated into the American culture.

The Melungeons had operated rich silver mines in the area of Straight Creek in the Cumberland Plateau, near Pineville, Kentucky. They minted silver coins in the area for their own use. By the time Kentucky joined the Union and became a Commonwealth, the independent secretive life of the Melungeons came to an end.

In 1600, The Indians told Jamestown residents that with only a six-day walk to the west, there were"people like you," who wore their hair short and built log houses.

In 1639, The First black recorded by name on the Delmar va Peninsula was called Anthony. He was delivered near present day Wilmington. He was often described as"an Angoler or Moor," and called"Blackamoor." From the"Delaware's Forgotten Folk" The Story of the Moors & Nanticokes by C.A. Weslager

In 1654, English explorers from Jamestown reported finding a colony of bearded people"Moors" wearing European clothing, living in cabins engaging in mining, smelting silver and dropping to their knees to pray many times daily in the mountains of what is now, North Carolina.

In 1670, Virginia General Assembly 1670 Act declared who will be slaves, excluding Turks & Moors, whose countries were in amity with the King of England. Page 491 of Virginia General Assembly 1733 and 1752 records.

In 1684, Moors are reported to have arrived in Delaware near Dover, and in Southern New Jersey near Bridgeton.

The descendants of many of the Muslim visitors of North America are members in many of our present day Indian tribes. Some of the tribes are the Alibamu tribe of Alabama, the Apaches, Anasazi, Arawak, Arikana, the Black Indians of the Schuylkill River area in New York, the Cherokees, Creeks, the Makkahs, Mahigans, Mohanets, the Nanticokes, the Seminoles, the Zulus, and the Zuni.

Many other Muslims and their descendants came to America's shores after being marooned, such as the Moors of Delaware near Dover, and of Southern New Jersey near Bridgeton, and in parts of Southern Maryland; the Melungeons of Tennessee and Virginia; the Guineas of West Virginia; the Clappers of New York; the Turks of South Carolina; and the Laster Tribe near Hertford, NC. It is reported that the Laster Tribe was descendants from a Moorish captain who married a white woman and settled in the area.

There are more than 500 names of places, villages, streets, towns, cities, lakes, rivers, etc . . . in the United States which are derived from Islamic and Arabic roots. Like Mecca, Indiana; Medina, N Y; Medina, OH; Medina, TX; Toledo, OH; Mahomet, IL; Islamorada, FL, and Tallahassee, FL.

In 1713, the Reverend John Sharpe reported from New York the existence of what he called "Negro marriages" he described a situation familiar to New Englanders. The marriages of the blacks, he explained, "are performed by mutual consent without the blessing of the Church," Some slaves, he went on, were kept from Christian marriage "because of polygamy contracted before baptism where none or neither of the wives will accept a divorce.
From Black Kings and Governors of New England.

In 1719 The Reverend Peter Thatcher of Milton, Massachusetts complained about his slave woman Hagar sexual life. She was a slave that was married to Sambo, a slave of Mr. Brightman of Boston, in 1716. She apparently had another child after Sambo's death or departure from the area by 1719. Hagar had three children Sambo, Jimmie, and Hagar.
From Black Kings and Governors of New England.

aIn 1730 Ayuba (Job) Suleiman Diallo, a well educated Muslim merchant was kidnaped and enslaved from 1730-1733. Job ibn Solomon Dgiallo (Jallo) came from Bundu, Senegal. He was captured in 1730 in Gambia and brought to Annapolis, MD in 1731, where he was delivered to Mr. V. Denton, factor to Mr Hunt. Mr Denton sold Job to Mr. Alexander Tolsey in Kent Island in Maryland. He was a Fulani who lived near the banks of the Gambia river in Senegal. Job was one of the first Muslims written about in America. While in Maryland Job wrote a letter to his father, which came to the attention of James Oglethorpe, the founder of Georgia, who helped purchase his freedom and sent him to London where he was finally set free and sent back home to work for the Royal African Company of London in his homeland. While in London Job wrote down three copies of the Quran from memory.

In 1730 Lamine Jay came from Futa-Toro, Senegal. He was captured along with Job ibn Soliman ibn Dgiallo (Jallo) trading on the lower part of the Gambia river. Lamine was also brought to Annapolis, Maryland where he became known as a Linguist. In less than five years Jay was able to win his freedom and return home with the help of his friend Job.

In the winter of 1741 in New York City, three Moorish crewmembers of a captured Spanish ship were sold into bondage and protested their condition, swearing revenge. After several fires flared across town during March and April of 1742, hysterical residents feared that a slave revolt was imminent and suspected that the Spanish Negroes "Moors" were deeply concerned and active in the protest. The episode ended with the public executions of twenty-three people and the exile of seventy-one others.
From the Seaport New York's History Magazine.

In 1750, true to legend, the Melungeons were already in the area of Knoxville, TN; Camden, SC; and Marion, NC when the first Europeans arrived.
Mahomet Tombstone
In 1750 in the royal burial ground of the Mohegans Indians in Norwich, CT one of the memorial state's "In memory of Elizabeth Joquib, the daughter of Mahomet, great-grandchild to the first Uncas, great sachem of Mohegan, who died July 5th, 1740 at 38 years old. Mamohet was the rightful heir of Qwenoco but Ben, the youngest son of Uncas, of illegitimate birth, succeeded Caesar, the successor as sachem after Owenoco.
From Indian Races of America / The New England Coast.

March 3, 1753 Muslims from North Africa, appear in the records of South Carolina. In the South Carolina Council Journal, No. 21, Pt. 1, pp. 298-299. Two men by the name Abel Conder and Mahamut (Mahomet) petitioned the South Carolina royal authorities in Arabic for their freedom. They came from Asilah (Sali) on the Barbary Coast of Morroco. Their story is that they were in a battle in 1736, with the Portuguese when they lost the battle and was captured. An officer named Captain Henry Daubrib, asked them would they be willing to serve him for five years in Carolina. When they arrived in South Carolina they were transferred to Daniel LaRoche, who then enslaved them for fifteen years until 1753.
From Carologue a publication of the South Carolina Historical Society 93 Muslim Slaves, Abducted Moors, African Jews, Misnamed Turks by James Hagy.
Image
Chicken George, Kunta's Grandfather

In 1767, Kunta Kinte was captured and enslaved. Kunta Kinte was a Muslim born in 1750, in the village of Juffure in Gambia. He was shipped to Annapolis, Maryland on the ship Lord Ligonier and sold to a Virginia planter. Kunta Kinte fought hard to hold on to his Islamic heritage. Having learned the Qur'an as a boy Kunta scratched Arabic phrases in the dirt and tried to pray every day after he arrived in America. Kunta Kinte was Alex's Haley Mandingo forbearer, who he talks about in his book Roots.

In 1768 a Muslim named Charno, living in South Carolina, wrote four Surahs from the Quran. He was the slave of Captain David Anderson. There are at least nine different people reported to have written Arabic text during this period.

In 1769 Savannah Georgia Gazette advertises for three runaway Muslim women from Guinea by the names of Jamina, Belinda, and Hagar.

From 1774-1775 many runaway slave advertisements were of Muslim runaway slaves. Like the one in the Savannah Georgia Gazette, in September 7, 1774 for a runaway Negro fellow named Mahomet.

On June 17, 1775, Peter Salem (Saleem) born (1750?-1816) a former slave who fought in the Battle of Bunker Hill. The battle was fought at Breed's Hill according to one story, the colonial troops were near defeat, and British Major John Pitcairn ordered them to surrender. Salem then stepped forward and shot Pitcairn. Pitcairn later died of the wound. Peter Salem got awarded for fighting in the Revolutionary War, and he also fought at Lexington. Peter Salem and Salem (Saleem) Poor were honored for their bravery.

ny Ship of War belonging to the United States shall put into any of our Ports, she shall not be examined on any Pretence whatever, even though she should have fugitive Slaves on BPeter Salem was born a slave in Framingham, Massachusetts. He had at least two owners in his lifetime. The first owner was Jeremiah Belknap. Belknap sold him to Lawson Buckminister of Framingham. Buckminister allowed Salem to enlist in the colonial army. In exchange for enlisting in the army, Salem received his freedom.

After receiving his freedom "Peter Buckminister" changed his name to Salem. He was also known as "Salem Prince." Local legend has it that the name Salem came from a Massachusetts privateering port where all of the sailors went during the Revolutionary War when people were fighting on their boats. History reports that an old Jewish man told the people that the word was like "shalom" which means peace. The name for peace in Arabic is Salaam and Saleem in Arabic means one who is peaceful.

Salem (Saleem) remained in the army for several years, long enough to fight in the battles of Saratoga and Stony Point. After the war he settled in Leicester, Massachusetts where he barely earned a living weaving cane seats for chairs. He died in the poor house in Framingham in 1816. Postage stamps have been made of Peter Salem and Salem Poor as American Revolutionary war heros.

In 1777 Morocco becomes the first country to acknowledge America's independence as a new country.

In 1784 Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Franklin, and John Adams was commissioned to negotiate a treaty with the Emperor of Morocco.

In 1786 Morocco became the sixth and the first Muslim country to sign a Peace Treaty with the United States in 1786. Algeria in 1795, Tripoli in 1796, Tunis in 1797, and Muscat (Oman) in 1833 followed.

In 1786 two Muslim men appeared in Charleston, SC "dressed in the Moorish habit" and aroused a great deal of suspicion by their strange ways. An officer of the law attempted to question them and found they were Moors who did not speak English. They were taken to an interpreter who found out they came from Algeria and sailed to Virginia were they had been arrested. Then they traveled overland to South Carolina.
From Carologue a publication of the South Carolina Historical Society 93 Muslim Slaves, Abducted Moors, African Jews, Misnamed Turks by James Hagy.

In 1788 Abrahim Abdul Rahman ibn Sori (1762-1829) born in Timbo, West Africa (In present day Guinea) was captured. He was known as the "Prince of Slaves." He was a Fulbe from the land of Futa Jallon. Abrahim was captured by warring tribes and sold to slave traders in 1788 at the age of 26. He was bought by a Natchez, Mississippi cotton and tobacco farmer, where he eventually became the overseer of the plantation.

In 1788-1789 The Sultan Mohammed III and President George Washington exchanging letters about peace and asking the Sultan to intercede with authorities in Tunis and Tripoli to obtain the right of free navigation for American ships in the Mediterranean.

August 20, 1789 the Savannah Georgia Gazette, runs an advertisment for a Muslim women runaway describing her as "A Young Negro Wench, named Hagar, has on oznabrig clothes, and wears a handkerchief on hear head. She has been seen a day or two ago selling watermelons near town."

In 1790 in South Carolina a group of "Moors" by the names of Francis, Daniel, Hammond, and Samuel, along with their wives four Muslim women named Fatima, Flora, Sarah, and Clarinda, asked the South Carolina House of Representatives to treat them as free whites. They stated that while they had been fighting for the emperor of Morocco against an African King they had been taken prisoners. A Captain Clark had the Moors delivered to him on the promise he would take them to England where the Ambassador from Morocco would purchase their freedom. Instead, Clark brought them to South Carolina where he sold them as slaves.
The Journals of the House of Representatives, 1789-1790.

In 1790 Joseph Benenhaly or Yusef Ben Ali from North Africa appears in the 1790 census in Sumter, county. General Thomas Sumter recruited Benenhaly, of Arab descent, and another man known as John Scott to fight with him in the American Revolution. Originally, it is believed that they were pirates. After the war, Sumter took them inland with him to near Stateburg where they settled down and many of their descendents have remained. His dark-skinned descendants, became known as the Turks of Sumter County because of their Moorish background.

In 1792 the South Carolina legislature passed a law which stopped the importation of slaves in the state. One provision stated that Moors could not be bound for terms of years of service and could not be brought into South Carolina from other states in the Union either by land or sea.
From Carologue a publication of the South Carolina Historical Society 93 Muslim Slaves, Abducted Moors, African Jews, Misnamed Turks by James Hagy.
Yarrow Marmood
In 1796 Brooke Beall's inventory listed Yarrow's age at about 60 years old. Yarrow (Mamout) Marmood 1736-1844 was enslaved and brought from Guinea, Africa before the Revolutionary War.

n 1803, Bilali (Ben Ali) Muhammad and his family arrived in Georgia on Sapelo Island. Bilali Muhammad was a Fula from Timbo Futa-Jallon in present day Guinea-Conakry. By 1806 he became the plantation manager for Thomas Spalding, a prominent Georgian master. Bilali and his wife Phoebe had 12 sons and 7 daughters. One of his sons is reported as being Aaron of Joel Chandler Harris' work, author of Uncle Remus and Br'er Rabbit stories. His daughters" names were Margaret, Hester, Charlotte, Fatima, Yoruba, Medina, and Bint. All his daughters but Bint could speak English, French, Fula, Gullah, and Arabic. Bilali was well educated in Islamic law. While enslaved Bilali became the community leader and Imam of at least 80 men. During the War of 1812 Bilali told his slave master that he had 80 men of the true faith to help defend the land against the British.

Bilali was known for regularly wearing his fez, a long coat, praying five times a day facing the east, fasting during the month of Ramadan, and celebrating the two holidays when they came. Bilali was buried with his Qur'an and prayer rug. In 1829 Bilali wrote a 13 page hand written Arabic text book called a "Risala"about some of the laws of Islam and Islamic living. The book is known as Ben Alis"Diary, housed today at the University of Georgia in Athens.

Bilali "Ben Ali" was the leader of one of America's earliest known Muslim communities. It's documented that in 1812 there were at least eighty Muslims living on a plantation controlled by Ben Ali from 1806 to the late 1830s.

In 1803, Salih Bilali (Old Tom) came from a powerful family of Massina in the Temourah district in West Africa. He was captured around 1782, sold in the Bahamas at first and then in the US around 1803. He lived from 1770-1846. He was sold to John Couper in the Bahamas and brought to St. Simon Island, Ga. From 1816-1840 Salih Bilali was the trusted head slave manager of more than 450 slaves of John and Hamilton Couper. It was reported by his master's son, that while Salih was on his death bed that his last words were "Allah is God and Mohammed his Prophet."

One of Salih's descendants was Robert Abbott, founder of the "Chicago Defender, "one of the nation's first black newspapers. Another one of Salih's descendants was named after him Bilali Sullivan who was known as (Ben Sullivan). Bilali (Ben) Sullivan purchased some of the original property from the plantation in 1914. He was interviewed about his life in the 1930s.

There are two well known Muslim communities of the Gullah Islands of St. Simon and Sapelo off the coast of Georgia. Bilali (Ben Ali) Mahomet and Salih Bilali ruled as plantation mangers and Muslim leaders. In America's history there were Gullah Wars. Some of them are known as the Seminole Indians wars. The African-American language Gullah was initially developed by the enslaved African Muslims and non-Muslims in Senegal to help communicate among the various African tribes.

In 1805, a slave named Sambo who knew Arabic had escaped from a plantation on the Ashley River, in South Carolina. The announcement in the Courier on February 9, 1805 offered a reward of $5 for his recovery. It stated that he was about 5′ 5″, slender body and writes the Arabic language.

In 1807, Yarrow (Mamout) Marmood was given his freedom. Yarrow was enslaved and brought from Guinea, Africa before the American Revolution. Yarrow was given his freedom by Upton Beall of Montgomery County in the Washington, DC area. On April 13, 1807, Upton Beall's deed was recorded that the Negro Yarrow was given his freedom because he was more than forty-five years old and that he would not become a bother to the County of Washington.

Two pictures of Yarrow exsits today, one painted by James Simpson in 1822 which hangs in the Peabody Room at Georgetown public library, and the other picture painted by Charles Wilson Peale in 1819 which hangs at the Historical Society of Pennsylvania.

Yarrow Marmood was a property owner in Georgetown in Washington, DC. In the 1800 and 1810 census Yarrow's name was listed as Negro Yarrow with a wife or elderly woman living with him. In the 1810 census Yarrow's name was listed as Yarrow Marmood with one woman living with him. Yarrow had established a hauling business, owned real estate on what is now 3330-3332 Dent Place NW, and he had invested some of his savings in the stock of the Bank of Columbia. One of Yarrow's neighbors and friend was another manumitted slave named Joseph Moor who became a respectable grocer in Georgetown.

In Washington, DC the 1820 census identifies Yarrow Marmood and Joseph Moore, both with families and free men. The census identifies Yarrow and a female family member and two other free people of color (blacks), Grace Almonds a family of four and Yarrow's neighbor Charley Brown a family of three, and one slave. The 1820 census also has three other free blacks Obed Diner a family of five, Free Catty a family of three, and Nelly a family of two.

On April 12, 1844, Yarrow's estate was administered by probate court in Washington, DC, under the name Negro Yarrow. Yarrow lived to be more than 100 years old. The dates of his birth and death have been record as 1736-1844.

In 1807, Hajj Omar Ibn Sayyid was captured at the age of 37. Omar was a Fula born in Fur Tur in present day Senegal. He was born from a Serahule family. Omar lived from 1770-1864. He had studied in Bundu, Senegal where he learned how to read, write, arabic, Islamic studies, and made Hajj in Mecca before his capture. Omar was enslaved in Charleston, SC where he labored for a short period of time before he escaped in 1810 to Fayetteville, NC where was caught and imprisoned. While in prison Omar persuaded James Owen, a general in the state militia and brother of John Owen (who later became Governor of North Carolina), to purchase him, which he did for $900.00. Omar was also known as Uncle Moreau.

Omar ibn Sayyid wrote many items in Arabic while enslaved. He wrote the Lords Prayer, the Bismillah, this is How You Pray, Quranic phases, the 23rd Psalm, and Omar's latest known writing was in 1857 Surah 110 of the Holy Qur'an.

oard, nor shall the Governor or Commander of the Place compel them to be brought on Shore on any pretext, nor require any payment for them.
13A History of Muslims in America

April 16th, 2009 | Category: Historical Narratives

Compiled By Amir Muhammad

In Dr. Barry Fell's book Saga America, he reports that the southwest Pima people possessed a vocabulary which contained words of Arabic origin. Dr. Fell also reports that in Inyo County, California, there exits an early rock carving which stated in Arabic:"Yasus ben Maria" ("Jesus, Son of Mary"). Dr. Fell discovered the existence of Muslim schools in Nevada, Colorado, New Mexico, and Indiana dating back to 700-800 CE.

By 1312, Mansa Musa's brother Sultan Abu Bakri II of Mali made his second expedition on the Atlantic ocean. In 1324 on his famous journey to Hajj, Mansa Musa reported in Cairo that his brother had left him in charge of Mali. Anthropologists have proven that the Mandinkas under Abu Bakri explored many parts of North America via the Mississippi and other river systems. At Four Corners, Arizona writings show that they even brought elephants from Africa to the area.

In 1492, Columbus had two captains of Muslim origin during his first voyage, one named Martin Alonso Pinzon the captain of the Pinta, and his brother Vicente Yanex Pinzon the captain of the Nina. They were wealthy expert ship outfitters who helped organize Columbus' expedition and repaired the flagship Santa Maria. The Pinzon family was related to Abuzayan Muhammad III, the Moroccan Sultan of the Marinid Dynasty (1196-1465).

October 21, 1492, Columbus admitted in his papers that while his ship was sailing near Gibara on the northeast coast of Cuba, he saw a Mosque on the top of a beautiful mountain. Ruins of Mosques and minarets with inscriptions of Qur'anic verses have been discovered in Cuba, Mexico, Texas, and Nevada.

In 1527, the Spanish explorer Panfilo de Narva'ez left Spain for the Americas. In his fleet he had five ships and six hundred people in his company. The expedition met with many hardships. Several ships were destroyed by a West Indies, hurricane and a group of Indians killed a large number of the remaining members of the party. Afterward, when only a few members of the expedition were left, Cabeza de Vaca, the former treasurer of Narva'ez took up the leadership of the remaining members of the party with Estevanico being among them.

Estevanico was called an Arab Negro, a Muslim who came from Azamore on the Atlantic Coast of Morocco. He was among the first two persons to reach the west coast of Mexico in an exploring overland expedition from Florida to the Pacific Coast. It's reported that Estevanico acted as a guide and it took them nine years to reach Mexico City where they told stories of their travels.

In 1538, Estevanico lead an expedition from Mexico with Friar Marco, in search of the fabled Seven Cities of Cibolia, in which time he discovered Arizona and New Mexico. He was the first member of a different race reported to have visited the North Mexican Pueblos. He was killed in the city of Cibolia, one of the Seven Cities of the Zuni Indians, which is now New Mexico. Friar Marco, while following Estevanico's trail to Cibolia, learned of his murder from an Indian messenger.

From 1566-1587 Spain kept and maintained a military outpost and settlement called Santa Elena on the southern tip of Parris Island, SC. Portuguese were known to be among the Spaniards at Santa Elena. In Spain 1568 the Alpujarra uprising of the Moriscos (Muslims' who were forcibly converted to Catholicism) gave cause to another wave of Portuguese Moriscos to leave Spain.

In 1600, the first Melungeons were reported in the southern Appalachian valleys. As English and Scotch-Irish settlers moved in, they pushed the Melungeons into the mountains of North Carolina, and into Tennessee, Kentucky, and Virginia. The Melungeons were the first people, aside from Native Americans to penetrate so deeply into the Appalachian region. Many of the Melungeons were of primarily Portuguese ancestry, with North African and Indian traits. Among the early Portuguese were the Moriscos of Spain who were escaping persecution. Today there are still some Melungeons living secretively and many have assimilated into the American culture.

The Melungeons had operated rich silver mines in the area of Straight Creek in the Cumberland Plateau, near Pineville, Kentucky. They minted silver coins in the area for their own use. By the time Kentucky joined the Union and became a Commonwealth, the independent secretive life of the Melungeons came to an end.

In 1600, The Indians told Jamestown residents that with only a six-day walk to the west, there were"people like you," who wore their hair short and built log houses.

In 1639, The First black recorded by name on the Delmar va Peninsula was called Anthony. He was delivered near present day Wilmington. He was often described as"an Angoler or Moor," and called"Blackamoor." From the"Delaware's Forgotten Folk" The Story of the Moors & Nanticokes by C.A. Weslager

In 1654, English explorers from Jamestown reported finding a colony of bearded people"Moors" wearing European clothing, living in cabins engaging in mining, smelting silver and dropping to their knees to pray many times daily in the mountains of what is now, North Carolina.

In 1670, Virginia General Assembly 1670 Act declared who will be slaves, excluding Turks & Moors, whose countries were in amity with the King of England. Page 491 of Virginia General Assembly 1733 and 1752 records.

In 1684, Moors are reported to have arrived in Delaware near Dover, and in Southern New Jersey near Bridgeton.

The descendants of many of the Muslim visitors of North America are members in many of our present day Indian tribes. Some of the tribes are the Alibamu tribe of Alabama, the Apaches, Anasazi, Arawak, Arikana, the Black Indians of the Schuylkill River area in New York, the Cherokees, Creeks, the Makkahs, Mahigans, Mohanets, the Nanticokes, the Seminoles, the Zulus, and the Zuni.

Many other Muslims and their descendants came to America's shores after being marooned, such as the Moors of Delaware near Dover, and of Southern New Jersey near Bridgeton, and in parts of Southern Maryland; the Melungeons of Tennessee and Virginia; the Guineas of West Virginia; the Clappers of New York; the Turks of South Carolina; and the Laster Tribe near Hertford, NC. It is reported that the Laster Tribe was descendants from a Moorish captain who married a white woman and settled in the area.

There are more than 500 names of places, villages, streets, towns, cities, lakes, rivers, etc . . . in the United States which are derived from Islamic and Arabic roots. Like Mecca, Indiana; Medina, N Y; Medina, OH; Medina, TX; Toledo, OH; Mahomet, IL; Islamorada, FL, and Tallahassee, FL.

In 1713, the Reverend John Sharpe reported from New York the existence of what he called "Negro marriages" he described a situation familiar to New Englanders. The marriages of the blacks, he explained, "are performed by mutual consent without the blessing of the Church," Some slaves, he went on, were kept from Christian marriage "because of polygamy contracted before baptism where none or neither of the wives will accept a divorce.
From Black Kings and Governors of New England.

In 1719 The Reverend Peter Thatcher of Milton, Massachusetts complained about his slave woman Hagar sexual life. She was a slave that was married to Sambo, a slave of Mr. Brightman of Boston, in 1716. She apparently had another child after Sambo's death or departure from the area by 1719. Hagar had three children Sambo, Jimmie, and Hagar.
From Black Kings and Governors of New England.

In 1730 Ayuba (Job) Suleiman Diallo, a well educated Muslim merchant was kidnaped and enslaved from 1730-1733. Job ibn Solomon Dgiallo (Jallo) came from Bundu, Senegal. He was captured in 1730 in Gambia and brought to Annapolis, MD in 1731, where he was delivered to Mr. V. Denton, factor to Mr Hunt. Mr Denton sold Job to Mr. Alexander Tolsey in Kent Island in Maryland. He was a Fulani who lived near the banks of the Gambia river in Senegal. Job was one of the first Muslims written about in America. While in Maryland Job wrote a letter to his father, which came to the attention of James Oglethorpe, the founder of Georgia, who helped purchase his freedom and sent him to London where he was finally set free and sent back home to work for the Royal African Company of London in his homeland. While in London Job wrote down three copies of the Quran from memory.

In 1730 Lamine Jay came from Futa-Toro, Senegal. He was captured along with Job ibn Soliman ibn Dgiallo (Jallo) trading on the lower part of the Gambia river. Lamine was also brought to Annapolis, Maryland where he became known as a Linguist. In less than five years Jay was able to win his freedom and return home with the help of his friend Job.

In the winter of 1741 in New York City, three Moorish crewmembers of a captured Spanish ship were sold into bondage and protested their condition, swearing revenge. After several fires flared across town during March and April of 1742, hysterical residents feared that a slave revolt was imminent and suspected that the Spanish Negroes "Moors" were deeply concerned and active in the protest. The episode ended with the public executions of twenty-three people and the exile of seventy-one others.
From the Seaport New York's History Magazine.

In 1750, true to legend, the Melungeons were already in the area of Knoxville, TN; Camden, SC; and Marion, NC when the first Europeans arrived.
Mahomet Tombstone
In 1750 in the royal burial ground of the Mohegans Indians in Norwich, CT one of the memorial state's "In memory of Elizabeth Joquib, the daughter of Mahomet, great-grandchild to the first Uncas, great sachem of Mohegan, who died July 5th, 1740 at 38 years old. Mamohet was the rightful heir of Qwenoco but Ben, the youngest son of Uncas, of illegitimate birth, succeeded Caesar, the successor as sachem after Owenoco.
From Indian Races of America / The New England Coast.

March 3, 1753 Muslims from North Africa, appear in the records of South Carolina. In the South Carolina Council Journal, No. 21, Pt. 1, pp. 298-299. Two men by the name Abel Conder and Mahamut (Mahomet) petitioned the South Carolina royal authorities in Arabic for their freedom. They came from Asilah (Sali) on the Barbary Coast of Morroco. Their story is that they were in a battle in 1736, with the Portuguese when they lost the battle and was captured. An officer named Captain Henry Daubrib, asked them would they be willing to serve him for five years in Carolina. When they arrived in South Carolina they were transferred to Daniel LaRoche, who then enslaved them for fifteen years until 1753.
From Carologue a publication of the South Carolina Historical Society 93 Muslim Slaves, Abducted Moors, African Jews, Misnamed Turks by James Hagy.
Image
Chicken George, Kunta's Grandfather

In 1767, Kunta Kinte was captured and enslaved. Kunta Kinte was a Muslim born in 1750, in the village of Juffure in Gambia. He was shipped to Annapolis, Maryland on the ship Lord Ligonier and sold to a Virginia planter. Kunta Kinte fought hard to hold on to his Islamic heritage. Having learned the Qur'an as a boy Kunta scratched Arabic phrases in the dirt and tried to pray every day after he arrived in America. Kunta Kinte was Alex's Haley Mandingo forbearer, who he talks about in his book Roots.

In 1768 a Muslim named Charno, living in South Carolina, wrote four Surahs from the Quran. He was the slave of Captain David Anderson. There are at least nine different people reported to have written Arabic text during this period.

In 1769 Savannah Georgia Gazette advertises for three runaway Muslim women from Guinea by the names of Jamina, Belinda, and Hagar.

From 1774-1775 many runaway slave advertisements were of Muslim runaway slaves. Like the one in the Savannah Georgia Gazette, in September 7, 1774 for a runaway Negro fellow named Mahomet.

On June 17, 1775, Peter Salem (Saleem) born (1750?-1816) a former slave who fought in the Battle of Bunker Hill. The battle was fought at Breed's Hill according to one story, the colonial troops were near defeat, and British Major John Pitcairn ordered them to surrender. Salem then stepped forward and shot Pitcairn. Pitcairn later died of the wound. Peter Salem got awarded for fighting in the Revolutionary War, and he also fought at Lexington. Peter Salem and Salem (Saleem) Poor were honored for their bravery.

Peter Salem was born a slave in Framingham, Massachusetts. He had at least two owners in his lifetime. The first owner was Jeremiah Belknap. Belknap sold him to Lawson Buckminister of Framingham. Buckminister allowed Salem to enlist in the colonial army. In exchange for enlisting in the army, Salem received his freedom.

After receiving his freedom "Peter Buckminister" changed his name to Salem. He was also known as "Salem Prince." Local legend has it that the name Salem came from a Massachusetts privateering port where all of the sailors went during the Revolutionary War when people were fighting on their boats. History reports that an old Jewish man told the people that the word was like "shalom" which means peace. The name for peace in Arabic is Salaam and Saleem in Arabic means one who is peaceful.

Salem (Saleem) remained in the army for several years, long enough to fight in the battles of Saratoga and Stony Point. After the war he settled in Leicester, Massachusetts where he barely earned a living weaving cane seats for chairs. He died in the poor house in Framingham in 1816. Postage stamps have been made of Peter Salem and Salem Poor as American Revolutionary war heros.

In 1777 Morocco becomes the first country to acknowledge America's independence as a new country.

In 1784 Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Franklin, and John Adams was commissioned to negotiate a treaty with the Emperor of Morocco.

In 1786 Morocco became the sixth and the first Muslim country to sign a Peace Treaty with the United States in 1786. Algeria in 1795, Tripoli in 1796, Tunis in 1797, and Muscat (Oman) in 1833 followed.

In 1786 two Muslim men appeared in Charleston, SC "dressed in the Moorish habit" and aroused a great deal of suspicion by their strange ways. An officer of the law attempted to question them and found they were Moors who did not speak English. They were taken to an interpreter who found out they came from Algeria and sailed to Virginia were they had been arrested. Then they traveled overland to South Carolina.
From Carologue a publication of the South Carolina Historical Society 93 Muslim Slaves, Abducted Moors, African Jews, Misnamed Turks by James Hagy.

In 1788 Abrahim Abdul Rahman ibn Sori (1762-1829) born in Timbo, West Africa (In present day Guinea) was captured. He was known as the "Prince of Slaves." He was a Fulbe from the land of Futa Jallon. Abrahim was captured by warring tribes and sold to slave traders in 1788 at the age of 26. He was bought by a Natchez, Mississippi cotton and tobacco farmer, where he eventually became the overseer of the plantation.

In 1788-1789 The Sultan Mohammed III and President George Washington exchanging letters about peace and asking the Sultan to intercede with authorities in Tunis and Tripoli to obtain the right of free navigation for American ships in the Mediterranean.

August 20, 1789 the Savannah Georgia Gazette, runs an advertisment for a Muslim women runaway describing her as "A Young Negro Wench, named Hagar, has on oznabrig clothes, and wears a handkerchief on hear head. She has been seen a day or two ago selling watermelons near town."

In 1790 in South Carolina a group of "Moors" by the names of Francis, Daniel, Hammond, and Samuel, along with their wives four Muslim women named Fatima, Flora, Sarah, and Clarinda, asked the South Carolina House of Representatives to treat them as free whites. They stated that while they had been fighting for the emperor of Morocco against an African King they had been taken prisoners. A Captain Clark had the Moors delivered to him on the promise he would take them to England where the Ambassador from Morocco would purchase their freedom. Instead, Clark brought them to South Carolina where he sold them as slaves.
The Journals of the House of Representatives, 1789-1790.

In 1790 Joseph Benenhaly or Yusef Ben Ali from North Africa appears in the 1790 census in Sumter, county. General Thomas Sumter recruited Benenhaly, of Arab descent, and another man known as John Scott to fight with him in the American Revolution. Originally, it is believed that they were pirates. After the war, Sumter took them inland with him to near Stateburg where they settled down and many of their descendents have remained. His dark-skinned descendants, became known as the Turks of Sumter County because of their Moorish background.

In 1792 the South Carolina legislature passed a law which stopped the importation of slaves in the state. One provision stated that Moors could not be bound for terms of years of service and could not be brought into South Carolina from other states in the Union either by land or sea.
From Carologue a publication of the South Carolina Historical Society 93 Muslim Slaves, Abducted Moors, African Jews, Misnamed Turks by James Hagy.
Yarrow Marmood
In 1796 Brooke Beall's inventory listed Yarrow's age at about 60 years old. Yarrow (Mamout) Marmood 1736-1844 was enslaved and brought from Guinea, Africa before the Revolutionary War.

n 1803, Bilali (Ben Ali) Muhammad and his family arrived in Georgia on Sapelo Island. Bilali Muhammad was a Fula from Timbo Futa-Jallon in present day Guinea-Conakry. By 1806 he became the plantation manager for Thomas Spalding, a prominent Georgian master. Bilali and his wife Phoebe had 12 sons and 7 daughters. One of his sons is reported as being Aaron of Joel Chandler Harris' work, author of Uncle Remus and Br'er Rabbit stories. His daughters" names were Margaret, Hester, Charlotte, Fatima, Yoruba, Medina, and Bint. All his daughters but Bint could speak English, French, Fula, Gullah, and Arabic. Bilali was well educated in Islamic law. While enslaved Bilali became the community leader and Imam of at least 80 men. During the War of 1812 Bilali told his slave master that he had 80 men of the true faith to help defend the land against the British.

Bilali was known for regularly wearing his fez, a long coat, praying five times a day facing the east, fasting during the month of Ramadan, and celebrating the two holidays when they came. Bilali was buried with his Qur'an and prayer rug. In 1829 Bilali wrote a 13 page hand written Arabic text book called a "Risala"about some of the laws of Islam and Islamic living. The book is known as Ben Alis"Diary, housed today at the University of Georgia in Athens.

Bilali "Ben Ali" was the leader of one of America's earliest known Muslim communities. It's documented that in 1812 there were at least eighty Muslims living on a plantation controlled by Ben Ali from 1806 to the late 1830s.

In 1803, Salih Bilali (Old Tom) came from a powerful family of Massina in the Temourah district in West Africa. He was captured around 1782, sold in the Bahamas at first and then in the US around 1803. He lived from 1770-1846. He was sold to John Couper in the Bahamas and brought to St. Simon Island, Ga. From 1816-1840 Salih Bilali was the trusted head slave manager of more than 450 slaves of John and Hamilton Couper. It was reported by his master's son, that while Salih was on his death bed that his last words were "Allah is God and Mohammed his Prophet."

One of Salih's descendants was Robert Abbott, founder of the "Chicago Defender, "one of the nation's first black newspapers. Another one of Salih's descendants was named after him Bilali Sullivan who was known as (Ben Sullivan). Bilali (Ben) Sullivan purchased some of the original property from the plantation in 1914. He was interviewed about his life in the 1930s.

There are two well known Muslim communities of the Gullah Islands of St. Simon and Sapelo off the coast of Georgia. Bilali (Ben Ali) Mahomet and Salih Bilali ruled as plantation mangers and Muslim leaders. In America's history there were Gullah Wars. Some of them are known as the Seminole Indians wars. The African-American language Gullah was initially developed by the enslaved African Muslims and non-Muslims in Senegal to help communicate among the various African tribes.

In 1805, a slave named Sambo who knew Arabic had escaped from a plantation on the Ashley River, in South Carolina. The announcement in the Courier on February 9, 1805 offered a reward of $5 for his recovery. It stated that he was about 5′ 5″, slender body and writes the Arabic language.

In 1807, Yarrow (Mamout) Marmood was given his freedom. Yarrow was enslaved and brought from Guinea, Africa before the American Revolution. Yarrow was given his freedom by Upton Beall of Montgomery County in the Washington, DC area. On April 13, 1807, Upton Beall's deed was recorded that the Negro Yarrow was given his freedom because he was more than forty-five years old and that he would not become a bother to the County of Washington.

Two pictures of Yarrow exsits today, one painted by James Simpson in 1822 which hangs in the Peabody Room at Georgetown public library, and the other picture painted by Charles Wilson Peale in 1819 which hangs at the Historical Society of Pennsylvania.

Yarrow Marmood was a property owner in Georgetown in Washington, DC. In the 1800 and 1810 census Yarrow's name was listed as Negro Yarrow with a wife or elderly woman living with him. In the 1810 census Yarrow's name was listed as Yarrow Marmood with one woman living with him. Yarrow had established a hauling business, owned real estate on what is now 3330-3332 Dent Place NW, and he had invested some of his savings in the stock of the Bank of Columbia. One of Yarrow's neighbors and friend was another manumitted slave named Joseph Moor who became a respectable grocer in Georgetown.

In Washington, DC the 1820 census identifies Yarrow Marmood and Joseph Moore, both with families and free men. The census identifies Yarrow and a female family member and two other free people of color (blacks), Grace Almonds a family of four and Yarrow's neighbor Charley Brown a family of three, and one slave. The 1820 census also has three other free blacks Obed Diner a family of five, Free Catty a family of three, and Nelly a family of two.

On April 12, 1844, Yarrow's estate was administered by probate court in Washington, DC, under the name Negro Yarrow. Yarrow lived to be more than 100 years old. The dates of his birth and death have been record as 1736-1844.

In 1807, Hajj Omar Ibn Sayyid was captured at the age of 37. Omar was a Fula born in Fur Tur in present day Senegal. He was born from a Serahule family. Omar lived from 1770-1864. He had studied in Bundu, Senegal where he learned how to read, write, arabic, Islamic studies, and made Hajj in Mecca before his capture. Omar was enslaved in Charleston, SC where he labored for a short period of time before he escaped in 1810 to Fayetteville, NC where was caught and imprisoned. While in prison Omar persuaded James Owen, a general in the state militia and brother of John Owen (who later became Governor of North Carolina), to purchase him, which he did for $900.00. Omar was also known as Uncle Moreau.

Omar ibn Sayyid wrote many items in Arabic while enslaved. He wrote the Lords Prayer, the Bismillah, this is How You Pray, Quranic phases, the 23rd Psalm, and Omar's latest known writing was in 1857 Surah 110 of the Holy Qur'an.

Omar was given an Arabic written Bible and a Qur'an by his slave master. The Bible is housed today at Davidson College in North Carolina.

In The War of 1812, Abraham joined the British Colonial Marines who had occupied Spanish Pensacola. Abraham lived from 1787-1870. He was well known as a very gifted individual, soft spoken, and intelligent. Abraham came to Pensacola, Florida sometime in the early 1800s. During his years in Pensacola, Abraham had been a slave of Dr. Eugenio Antonio Sierra, a prominent Spanish physician and surgeon. He was held in high esteem and worked as an interpreter, for he spoke several different languages.

Soon after the Fort Negro construction Abraham left out on his own. He soon gained a reputation as a businessman or a man after profit. Abraham became involved in trade with the Maroons and the Seminole Indians of the lower Suwannee River area. Gradually, he was accepted by the Maroons and became their foremost leader. The Seminoles had a high regard for Abraham.

Chief Micanopy, the top hereditary chief in the Seminole Nation, appointed Abraham as the "sense-bearer" or legal counsel. As the military leader of the Maroons, he was known by the name "Sounoffee Tustenuggee" which means "Suwannee Warrior." Abraham was married to a woman named Hagar. Abraham and Hagar had two sons named Renty and Washington. Abraham lived peacefully with his family and people in the villa of Pilaklikaha, raising horses, cattle, and growing crops.
After the first Seminole war Abraham and a delegation of Indian Chiefs went to Oklahoma in 1832 to inspect the land being offered to them in the treaty that was to move them out of Florida. The United States officials would not allow Abraham and the others to leave until they signed the treaty, which they did on March 28, 1833. Abraham opposed the move, therefore spending almost eight months at Fort Gibson. Abraham and several other leaders were opposed to the treaty after learning of its deception, thus the second Seminole war began 1835 to 1842. Abraham had fought in almost every battle of the Seminole Indians wars until 1837. However, in February of 1839 he moved to Oklahoma with his family and became a successful cattle rancher.

Abraham returned to Florida in 1852, ten years after the government officially declared an end to the Seminole war. The government had hired Abraham to take chief Billy Bowlegs, his father in-law, and some other chiefs to Washington, DC., in order to convince them to leave Florida. They met with Millard Fillmore who became President after Zachary Taylor died. The chiefs still refused to move to Oklahoma. They went back to Florida and disappeared in the everglades. Abraham went back to his ranch in Oklahoma where he died years later, sometime after the Civil War in 1870. He was buried in an unmarked grave in today's Seminole county.

In 1818 Medina, Ohio was organized. It was originally called Mecca, then later it changed to Medina making it the seventh place on the globe at the time called Medina. Three other cities in America bear the name Medina- Medina, New York; Medina, Michigan and Medina, TX.

In 1828, Abrahim Abdul Rahman ibn Sori (1762-1829) was set free by the order of the Secretary of State Henry Clay and President John Quincy Adams. He was born in Timbo, West Africa (in present day Guinea). He was known as the "Prince of Slaves." He was a Fulbe from the land of Futa Jallon. Abrahim left Futa in 1774 to study in Mali at Timbuktu.

Abrahim was captured by warring tribes and sold to slave traders in 1788 at the age of 26. He was bought by a Natchez, Mississippi cotton and tobacco farmer, where he eventually became the overseer of the plantation of Thomas Foster. In 1794 he married Isabella, another slave of Foster's, and eventually fathered a large family. In 1826 he wrote a letter to his relatives in Africa. A local newspaperman sent a copy to Senator Thomas Reed in Washington, who forwarded it to the U.S. Consulate in Morocco. After the Sultan of Morocco read the letter, he asked President Adams and Secretary of State Henry Clay to release Abrahim Abdul Rahman.

In 1807, a coincidental meeting took place. John Cox, an Irish ship's surgeon, whose life had been saved by Abrahim's father many years earlier. John Cox recognized the Prince in the market, learned of his story, and began petitioning for his freedom. Twenty five years later in 1828 at the age of 66 Abrahim gained his freedom. Rahman had been a slave in America for forty years before he got his freedom. Rahman and his wife sailed for Africa in February 1829. The following September his former owner died. Foster's heirs sold two of Rahman's children and five of his grandchildren to the American Colonization Society (A.C.S), and they were reunited with his wife in Liberia.

In 1828, a Muslim named Sterling living in Hartford, CT met Abdul Rahman during his visit to the New England States.

In 1832, The Village of Mahomet, IL was laid out. Mahomet, IL was originally named Middletown. Sometime during the 1840s it was changed to Mahomet, IL.

In 1834, A Muslim woman named Sylvia appears in "Knights of the Golden Horseshoe,"by William A. Carruthers.

In 1834, in Tennessee, a Muslim by the name of Hamet Abdul is reported to have sought money to return to Africa.

In 1834, two Muslims by the names of Jupiter (Dawud) Dowda and Big Jack were reported by the American Colonization Society's "The African Repository"to be well-known slaves in New Orleans. Big Jack was a plantation manager.

In 1835, Lamen Kebe known as (Old Paul) was liberated after having been in servitude in South Carolina and Alabama. Lamen Kebe was captured in battle and arrived in America in the early 1800s. He was from an elite class of Serahule who were trained to rule, advise, teach, protect, trade, translate, collect taxes, and travel. His family were the founders of ancient Ghana, and they were among the earliest converts to Islam south of the Sahara. His mother was a Mandinga. In Senegambia, he was a schoolmaster in the land of the Fulah before his capture. Lamen and Omar Sayyid corresponded with each other in 1835 in Arabic. Lamen (Old Paul) through Omar, provided Theodore Dwight, a member of the American Ethnological Society, with information of his native land and school system. Lamen returned back to Africa at the age of sixty in 1835.

In 1839, Oman's ruler, Sayyid Sa'id, ordered his ship "The Sultana"to set sail for America on a trade mission. The ship touched port in New York on April 30, 1840. The voyage was not a commercial success. The ship's commander, Ahmed bin Nauman bin Muhsin Al-k'abi Al-Bahraini came from Zanzibar. Ahmed bin Nauman bin Muhsin Al-k'abi Al-Bahraini's photo hangs today on the third floor of City Hall in New York, NY.

In 1845, Osman Rockman died. His tombstone was found in Connecticut.

In 1852, Osman known as "General Osman" became the leader of the North Carolina Dismal Swamp community from 1852-1862. Osman was a runaway slave from Virginia and lived in the dismal swamp. At one time the dismal swamp was partly owned by George Washington, the first President of the United States. The swamp was drudged out by slave labor in the mid 1700s.

In 1856, The United States cavalry hired a Muslim by the name of Hajj Ali to experiment with raising camels in Arizona. He experimented with breeding camels in the desert. He became a local folk hero in Quartzsite, AZ, where he died in 1903. He was known as "Hi Jolly", his tombstone is a stone built pyramid with a camel on top of it.

In 1859, in Savannah, Ga, many slaves were sold from the Butler plantation in Darien, Ga. Some of the slaves sold were Muslims. It was reported that some of the women wore gorgeous turbans and one of them had a string of beads. At the auction a Muslim named Abel age 19 was sold for $1,295, and one named Hagar, age 50, was sold for $300.

In 1860, a Muslim lady known as "Old Lizzy Gray" died in Edge field County. Her obituary, appeared on the front page of the Edgefield Advertiser, on September 12, 1860. Her physician and owner Dr. E.J. Mims wrote that according to the best computations she was 127 years of age. She had four children in Africa before being taken prisoner. During the revolution she was a prisoner on board an English ship. Before her capture she was educated as a Muslim. As a slave she seems to have combined both faiths and became a member of the Methodist Church. She was known to have always said "Christ built the first Church in Mecca."

In 1860, Muhammad Ali ibn Said (1833 – 1882), known as (Nicholas Said) arrived in America as a free man. Muhammad was born in the Kingdom of Bornoo, West Africa near Lake Chad to a well-educated merchant family. Said was kidnaped and enslaved when he was 16. His first slave master was an Arab named Abdel Kader who took him to Tripoli and Fezzan. Muhammad was then sold to Alexander Menshikov, an aide to the Russian Czar, then to Nicholas Trubetzkoy with whom he traveled to many places during his years of slavery from Russia, Rome, Persia to France. In 1860 he left Liverpool, England with a man from Holland to travel to Boston, New York, Kingston, New Providence, Toronto, Quebec, and other places in North America as a freed man.

In 1861 he arrived in Detroit. Shortly afterward he found a teaching job and in 1863 Muhammad enlisted in the 55th Massachusetts colored regiment and became a Civil War hero. He served faithfully and bravely with his regiment as Corporal and then Sergeant in the South. Near the close of the war he was assigned, at his own request, to the hospital department, to learn some knowledge of medicine. His Army records show that he died in Brownsville, Tennessee in 1882.

. In 1864, a monument was erected in New England for a Mr. Smith and it is crowned with three slain Muslim's heads who were slain by Mr. Smith. From the Isles of Shoals.

In 1864, Captain Harry Dean was born. He was the son of Susan Cuffe Dean whose brother was Paul Cuffe. Captain Dean's family came from Quata, Morocco. For three generations the family were wealthy merchants in Philadelphia. Captain Dean found the first black nautical training school in America. Dean maintained his family's Islamic tradition during his seafaring days on the ship "Pedro Gorino" and in southern Africa where he tried to build an African empire. He was also associated with the Muslim Mosque of London. In the United States he distributed Islamic literature in Chicago, Los Angeles, Seattle, and Washington state.

In 1866, The Cherokee chief had a Muslim name, Chief Ramadan ibn Wati. Muslims were known to live among many of the different Indian tribes. They lived among the Seminole Indians, The Delawares, The Nanticokes, The Cherokees, and many others.

In 1869, a number of Muslims from Yemen arrived in the United States after the opening of the Suez Canal. Most Yemenis came through New York to Buffalo, and Detroit. Many Yemenis jumped shipped in San Francisco and settled on the West Coast.

In 1875, The first small wave of Muslim immigrants arrived, mainly from Greater Syria (Syria, Lebanon, and Palestine). Some of the Syrian-Lebanese Arabs settled on Manhattan's lower Washington Street and in Brooklyn across the East River around Atlantic Avenue and South Brooklyn. A smaller number came from the Punjab area of India.

In 1876, The Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia, attracted Arab merchants and peddlers, where they sold an assortment of merchandise, and some set up centers to import goods.

In 1877, Seven Algerian escapees from French Guyana were admitted by the Mayor of Wilmington, Delaware, and held as exiles.

In 1884, Sambo Swift died. He was born in 1811, and lived in Darien, GA. He was buried with his tombstone facing northeast. Engraved on his tombstone is a hand pointing with one finger up as the Islamic symbol of God's oneness. This symbol was used by Muslims dating back more than 1400 years. It is believed that Sambo was one of the slaves left on the Butler plantation at the time of the great slave sale of 1859 in Georgia. Sambo was a carpenter and had at least three children named Abraham, Mollie, and Alonzo.

In 1889, Edward Wilmot Blyden, a noted scholar and activist, traveled throughout the eastern and southern parts of the United States proclaiming the truth of Islam. Edward Wilmot Blyden (1832 – 1912) was born in St. Thomas, Virgin Islands on August 3rd, 1832. In 1850 he emigrates to Liberia from America and by 1855-56 became the editor of the Liberian Herald. Blyden served for three terms (1864-1871) as Secretary of State of Liberia, and on three postings as Ambassador to the Court of St. James in 1877, 1879, and 1892-94.

In 1858 Blyden was ordained as a Presbyterian clergyman. By 1886 he resigns from the Presbyterian Church and becomes a Muslim, one of the first known freed Africans to revert back to Islam. In 1887 Blyden published his first book Christianity, Islam and the Negro Race.

From 1901-1906 Edward Blyden was the Director of Mohammed Education in Sierra Leone.

In 1893, Mohammed Alexander Russell Webb (1846-1916) appeared at the First World Exposition Conference on World Religions in Chicago, where he delivered two lectures, "The Spirit of Islam" and "The Influence of Islam on Social Conditions." Among the audience was Mark Twain. Webb converted to Islam in 1888 while he was serving as the American Consul to the Philippines. He was also a Journalist. Webb is known as the first white American convert to Islam. In 1893, Mohammed found the first Islamic organization in America called "The American Moslem Brotherhood" in New York.

In 1897, The Federal government allotted free land, consequently Syrians started moving to Rugby and Williston, North Dakota. From 1899-1914 a total of 86,111 Syrians arrived in America.

In 1897, Elijah Muhammad (1897-1975) is born in Sandersville, Georgia. He became the leader of The Nation of Islam from 1934 to 1975.

In 1899, Hassen Juma had settled in Ross, North Dakota with 160 acres of free land. By 1902 twenty families had followed his path from Birey, Syria. In the early 1920s they built one of the Nations first Mosque.

In the late 1800s ma From 1900-1917 Wills are found in Washington, DC Archives beginning with Islamic salutations "With the Name of God Amen" with names like Hannah Henderson, Fontaine Mahmood, James Moore, Mary Newman, Edward Quader, and Anne Yarrow.

In 1903, Mohammed Asa Abu-Howar arrives in New York. Moves to Washington, DC. He becomes a successful builder as A. Joseph Howar, who backed the construction of the Islamic Center.

In 1904, at the St. Louis Exposition and World Fair, merchants and visitors came from the Arab world at which time an Arab used a waffle to create an ice cream cone.

In 1905, The US General Land Office grants land title to one Mahmod Ali.

In 1907, The Polish Tartars establish "The American Mohammed Society" in Brooklyn, NY.

In 1908, Muslim immigrants from the Arab provinces of the Ottoman Empire, Syria, Lebanon, Jordan arrive in North America. They are mainly Turks, Kurds, Albanians, and Arabs.

In 1913, Noble Drew Ali established the Canaanite Temple in Newark, NJ. Noble Drew Ali was born Timothy Drew, January 8, 1886 on a Cherokee reservation in Sampson, North Carolina. There were immediate challenges to Noble Drew Ali's leadership from within the Moorish community, and by 1916 internal disagreements caused a division of the Moorish-American nation into two groups. One group stayed in Newark, changing its name to the Holy Moabite Temple of the World. Moabite, is the ancient name for Moroccans. Noble Drew Ali and his followers moved to Chicago in 1925 and established the Moorish Science Temple of America. By this time, Drew Ali had established temples in Charleston, WVA; Milwaukee, WI; Lansing and Detroit, MI; Philadelphia and Pittsburgh, PA; Pine Bluff, AR; Newark, NJ; Cleveland and Youngstown, OH; Richmond and Petersburg, VA. Noble Drew Ali was murdered in 1929 in Chicago, IL and buried in Burr Oak Cemetery.

In 1915, Albanian Muslims in Biddeford, Maine established the first effective Mosque in North America. Most were bachelors working at the Peppermell Mills. Muslim Albanian families still reside in Biddeford and nearby Saco.

In 1919, The Albanians established another Mosque in Connecticut.

In 1919, an Islamic association established in Highland Park, Michigan. The organization dismantled after 5 years.

In 1920, The first Ahmadiyya Muslim missionary to arrive in America was Dr. Mufti Muhammad Sadiq, who arrived in Philadelphia on Sunday, February 15, 1920, on board the Haverford. For religious reasons he was detained on Ellis Island, New York on February 25, 1920. On May 20, 1920 he was released by the order of the Secretary of the State. Dr. Sadiq stayed in New York for some time and continued to preach Islam. Later, he moved to Chicago and in 1921 established the first headquarters of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community, at 4448 Wabash Avenue, giving it the name "Al Masjid."

In 1920, The Red Crescent, a Muslim charity modeled after the International Red Cross, is established in Detroit.

In 1922, an Islamic association was established in Detroit, Michigan.

By 1923, Hassen Mohamed became a successful businessman in Downtown Belzoni, Mississippi. He had a general merchandise store. Hassen settled in the Belzoni area in 1911 he came from the Lebanese Shiite village of Sir'een. Hassen was married to Ethel Wright together they had eight children one of their sons Ollie Mohamed became a State Senator. Hassen Mohamed past away in 1965.

In 1925, a Muslim group in Michigan City, Indiana purchased land designated as their cemetery. In the thirties, these Muslims added a Mosque/Community Center. The building is still in use.

In 1926, Duse Muhammad Ali (1866-1945), mentor of Marcus Garvey, helped establish an organization in Detroit known as the "Universal Islamic Society." Its motto was "One God, One Aim, One Destiny." He was born in Alexandria, Egypt, the son of a Sudanese mother and an Egyptian army officer. He was brought to London at a young age by one of his fathers" friends. He was known to be a frequently in the company of Muhammad Pickthall, the English Muslim scholar who translated the Holy Qur'an into English. Duse Ali had considerable influence upon Garvey's when they work together in London when Duse Ali was the Editor African Times and Orient Review.

In 1926, Polish speaking Tartars opened a Mosque in Brooklyn, NY. In the 1900s Polish Muslims came to Brooklyn, NY. In 1931 they purchase a New England church-style-meeting hall and an adjacent three-story residential building which is still in use today. The community is made up of Asian Tartars whose nomadic ancestors helped Vitautas, Grand Duke of Lithuania, in his victory against the Teutonic Order in 1410. They settled in Lithuania and Poland with the status of nobility, while remaining Muslim. They were nearly annihilated during World War II.

In 1928, The Islamic Propagation Center of America opened up on State Street in Brooklyn, New York, under the leadership of Shaikh Al-Haj Daoud Ahmed Faisal. He also started the Islamic Mission Society, which was active from 1934-1942. Shaikh Faisal was granted a charter by Shaikh Khalid of Jordan and King Saud of Saudi Arabia to propagate Islam in America.

In 1928, The early beginnings of the first Mosque of Pittsburgh were rooted in Noble Drew Ali's teaching. Several years after its foundation, the main teacher of the community, Walter Smith Bey, invited Dr. Yusef Khan an Ahmadi to speak and teach the community. During this time of growth and development by 1935 there emerged a new conflict pertaining to Dr. Khan's teachings. Most of the community members concluded against Dr. Khan and the community divided for a second time. Today the community follows the sunnah of the Prophet.

In 1929, Muslim farmers built one of America's first Mosques (Masjid) in Ross, North Dakota. The homesteader Hassen Juma had settled there with 160 free acres in 1899. By 1902, twenty families had followed his path from Birey, Syria. The U.S. objected to their naturalization until 1909 when it withdrew the ban and the Syrians began claiming citizenship. Many fought and died in the two world wars. In 1929 the community built a Mosque, and performed Jumah (Friday) prayer service. The farmhouse/mosque was destroyed in 1978. The cemetery on its grounds remains and there is an arched gate with a crescent and star on it.

In 1929, "The Lost-Found Nation of Islam in the Wilderness of North America" in Detroit was founded by W.D.Fard. Fard was known as (Wali D. Fard, Wallace Fard, and W.F. Muhammad) mystery surrounds his origins some identify him as half-Syrian, half-Jamaican some say half-Persian, half-Turkish, and the FBI says he was half-Polynesian, half-Scottish. Fard claimed he was half-European, half-Meccan genealogy. On July the Fourth, he announced the beginning of His mission which was to restore and to resurrect his lost and found people, who were identified as the original nation of Muslims of Asiatic-African descent from the tribe of Shabazz, who were captured, exploited, and dehumanized and enslaved. In 1931, Fard was preaching in Detroit, Michigan where after hearing his first lecture Elijah Poole was overwhelmed by the message and immediately accepted it. The founder of the Nation of Islam gave him the name "Karriem" and made him minister. Later he was promoted to the position of "Supreme Minister" and his name was changed to Muhammad.

Mr. Muhammad quickly became an integral part of the Temple of Islam. For the next three and a half years, Mr. Muhammad was personally taught by his teacher Wali D. Fard. Eljiah was taught some Islamic beliefs, a self-independence and empowerment concept, a history, a superior cultural belief, was inspired to read and respect the Holy Qur'an. There where about 8,000 followers at that time.

In 1933, Fard told Eljiah Muhammad that he was the Mahdi "The Saviour", the one who had come in the early morning dawn of the New Millennium to lay the base for a New World Order of Peace and Righteousness on the foundation of truth, justice, freedom, and to change the world into a Heaven on Earth.

In 1934, The Honorable Elijah Muhammad (1897-1975) becomes the leader of "The Lost-Found Nation of Islam in the Wilderness of North America" which later became known as "The Nation of Islam." The Nation of Islam, was an i-ndigenous African American Islamic expression founded by Wali Fard Muhammad and developed by Elijah Muhammad. In 1934, W. Fard Muhammad, departed the scene and left the Honorable Elijah Muhammad with the mission. By 1935, Mr. Muhammad faced many new challenges and a death plot at the hands of a few disgruntled members. To avoid the plot and to do research at the Library of Congress he moved to Washington, DC. In Washington, Mr. Muhammad studied and started a Muslim community he was known as "Mr Evans", "Ghulam Bogans", Muhammad Rassoull". The Honorable Elijah Muhammad built a mulit-million dollar empire by the time of his passing. The Nation of Islam had develop many Temples of Islam, and the University of Islam across the country, they had businesses, farms, property, rental property, transportation fleets and more. He produced many great Muslims leaders like Al-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz (Malcolm X), Muhammad Ali, Louis Farrakhan, and Imam W.D. Mohammed.

In 1934, The Muslim community of Cedar Rapids, Iowa built the first Masjid (Mosque) specifically designed and built as a Masjid. The earlier community was predominantly Lebanese under the leadership of Abdullah Ingram. Cedar Rapid's community has grown and has been able to maintain their Islamic identity.

In 1934, The Frist Mosque of Cleveland was developed by a major community of Ahmadis headed by Wali Akram from 1934-1937. By the 1940s there were two hundred people in the Masjid. As the twentieth century progressed, the direct personal influence of the Ahmadi missionaries declined. Many of the early members left the movement for a variety of reasons.

In the 1930′s, three other Mosques (Masjids) were started in Dearborn, MI., Sacramento, CA., and Michigan City, MI.

In the late 1930s, "The Addeynu Allah Universal Arab Association" a Sunni community was established in Newark, NJ under the leadership of Professor Ezeldeen who was second in command in Noble Drew Ali's movement and was known as Brother Lomax Bey. As one of the first African-American to master the Arabic language and to go aboard to study Islam in Egypt. When Professor Ezeldeen returned to the States, he rejected the teachings of the Moorish Science Temple and developed orthodox Islamic communities in several cities throughout the United States. A community was developed in upper State New York and in Southern part of New Jersey outside of Camden in a community called Ezaldeen Village. Professor Ezeldeen was responsible for establishing the first National Islamic Organization among the Sunni Muslims called "United Islamic Communities", which included Sheikh Dawud, members of the First Mosque of Cleveland and Pittsburgh along with others.

In 1939, The Islamic Mission Society is founded in New York by Sheikh Dawud.

In 1940, The first official Nation of Islam Temple #4 in Washington, DC was setup by Elijah Muhammad. Three other cities had Temples in Detroit, MN #1, Chicago, IL #2, and Milwaukee, Wn #3.

In 1941, The FBI begins its' program of harassment on the members of the Nation of Islam.

In 1942, John Ben Ali Haggin was known as Captain Johnny Haggin who became famous for his valor as the pilot of the famous submarine sinking flight, off the coast of New Jersey. John Ben Ali Haggin was born of Irish-Arabian descent on August 19, 1916, in New York City.

In 1942, The Nation of Islam begins preaching in the US prison systems in Petersburg, VA. William X Fagin, Harry X Craighhead, and Benjamin X Mitchell. In Benjamin's book he states that "Inmates began to ask us questions about our religion. The three of us began to explain to the inmates the teachings of Islam."

In 1946, The Nation of Islam bought their first Temple called Temple #2 in Chicago, Illinois.

In 1946, The first Young Muslim Women's Association was chartered in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. They had a sub-charter in Missouri that provided services such as aid for dependent children, widows, and the elderly.

1947-60, A third wave of Muslim immigrants, coming from Palestine, Yugoslavia, Lebanon and Egypt.

In 1949, The Albanian-American Muslim Center of Detroit was founded by Imam Vehbi Ismail.

By the late 1940s, a few jazz musicians became Muslims. Art Blakey, Talib Dawoud, Mohammed Sadiq, Sahib Shihab, Ahmad Jamal, Dakota Staton, Yusef Lateef, Idrees Sulieman, and McCoy (Sulieman Saud) Tyner to a name a few.

In 1950, the first mosque in the nation's capital is established as the "American Fazl Mosque" at 2141 Leroy Place, Washington, DC. It served as the Headquarters of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community from 1950-1994.

In 1952, Muslim service men sue the federal government and were allowed to identify themselves as Muslims.

In 1954, The Federation of Islamic Associations (FIA) of the US and Canada was established.

In 1955, The State Street Masjid in New York City was established by Sheikh Dawud Ahmed Faisal. It is still in use today. From this Masjid came the Dar-ul-Islam movement in 1962.

In 1955, A Mosque was established by Yugoslavians in Chicago. These Muslims arrived in the early 1900s and have evolved into an organized ethnic group with several institutions, including the Bosnian-American Cultural Association

(AND THIS IS WHEN I WAS BORN IN NORTH PHILA BOYERS CO PA

MR Bucky Pierre Mayo

In 1956, Malik Shabzz (Malcolm X) (1925-1965), becomes an active preacher for the Nation of Islam. While in prison, he was introduced to Elijah Muhammad teaching. In the early 1950s he converted and took his X. He started working with the Nation of Islam in 1952 when he was released from jail. He eventually rose to a position of leadership and was assigned to New York City Temple #7. In the late 1970s Temple #7 was renamed Masjid Malcolm Shabazz in honored of him.

In 1957, The Islamic Center of Washington, D.C. opens. The Islamic Center of Washington, DC was open on June 28th 1957. The center was built as a traditional Islamic architect structure. President Dwight Eisenhower gave the opening remarks at the opening of the Islamic Center. In his statement he says, "Under the American Constitution this Center, this place of worship is as welcome as could be any similar edifice of any religion. Americans would fight with all their strength for your right to have your own church and worship according to your own conscience."

In 1960, Masjid Muhammad of Washington, DC was built as the first Mosque built under the leadership of Elijah Muhammad. During its" first ten years the building was used as a Temple. For more than twenty years since 1975 Masjid Muhammad has functioned as a Masjid under the Sunnah or orthodox way of Al-Islam. The community has a rich history that expands more than sixty years since the mid 1930s and was known as Temple #4 in its early beginnings.

In 1962, The first Muslim American Newspaper "Muhammad Speaks" is launched. It later became the largest minority weekly publication in the country and reached more than 800,000 readers at its peak. It has undergone various name changes' Bilalian News, The A.M. Journal, to its current name Muslim Journal.

In 1963, The Muslim Student Association (MSA) was founded. It's an organization to aid foreign Muslim students attending schools in the United States. MSA now has more than 100 branches nationwide.

In 1965, Internationally known Muslim leader El Hajj Malik al-Shabazz (Malcolm X) is assassinated in New York.

In 1965, Muhammad Ali the three time world boxing champ makes the name Muhammad Ali and the Islamic faith a household name in America.

In 1968, The Hanafi Movement is founded by Hamas Abdul-Khaalis. The Hanafi Madhab Center was established in New York but later moved to Washington, DC. At it peak the community had a membership of more than 1,000 in the United States. Kareem Abdul-JAbbar, the famous basket player help bring attention to the community.

From 1960′s-1980, A fifth wave of Muslim students and immigrants came from all over the Muslim World.

From 1970-1973, Dr. Fazlur Rahman Khan, a Muslim from Bangladesh, designed the Chicago's John Hancock Center in (1970), the One Shell Plaza in Houston (1971), and the Sears Towers in Chicago in (1973).

In 1972, the Honorable Elijah Muhammad opened a $2 million Mosque and school in Chicago.

In 1973, a unique event took place. A descendant of the Beall's Family sold some property to Masjid Muhammad, then known as Muhammad's Holy Temple of Islam # 4. The Beall's is the same family that had own and freed Yarrow Marmood in the 1800s.

In 1974, The Muslim World League was granted non-governmental organizational status at the United Nations.

In 1975, Elijah Muhammad, leader of the Nation of Islam, dies February 25th.

In 1975, Warith Deen Mohammed becomes the leader of the Nation of Islam. He moved the Nation of Islam from nationalism into the Sunnah path of Islam. Under his leadership the community made many positive transitions and name changes from The World Community of Islam in the West, to the American Muslim Mission, Ministry of W.D. Mohammed, and now Muslim American Society.

In 1978, Warith Deen Muhammad is named as consultant/trustee by the Gulf States to distribute funds for Islamic missionary activities in the U.S.

In 1981, The first Islamic library was established in Plainfield, Indiana.

In 1982, The Islamic Society of North America (ISNA) was established in Plainfield, IN. ISNA is now an umbrella organization for many active Islamic groups seeking to further the cause of Al-Islam in the United States.

In 1985, Warith D. Muhammad decentralizes the old N.O.I community structure.

In the 1990s, A Somalian born Muslim working as an employee for the US Post Office invented the new self-adhesive stamp.

In the 1990s A National Shura developed in North America which comprises Imam W.D. Mohammed, Dr. Abdullah Idris Ali, President of ISNA, Imam Jamil Al-Amin, and Dr. Abdul Malik Mujahid, the Amir of ICNA.

In 1991, Imam Siraj Wahhaj, became the first Muslim in U.S. history to offer the invocation (opening prayer) to the United States House of Representatives.

In 1991, Charles Bilal, of Kountze, Texas, became the nation's first Muslim mayor in an American city.

In 1992, Imam Warith Deen Mohammed, became the first Muslim in U.S. history to offer the invocation (opening prayer) to the United States Senate.

In 1993, Captain Abdul Rasheed Muhammad became the First Muslim Army Chaplin (Imam) in the U.S. Army was installed. In 1991 according to the United States Department of Defense, there are more than 5,000 Muslims in uniform on active duty in the military.

In 1994, Council on American-Islamic Relations (CAIR) is established, a leading Islamic Human and Civil rights organization.

In 1994, Abdul-Hakeem Muhammad, a computer specialist with the IRS, won the Department of the Army's Commander's Award for Civilian Service. For his work in the field of Open systems standards and architectural environment.

In 1996, Monje Malak Abd Al-Muta"Ali ibn Noel, Jr. became the First Muslim Naval Chaplin (Imam) in the U.S. Navy.

In 1996, The American Muslim Council sponsored the first Iftar Dinner Celebration on Capitol Hill.

In 1996, The White House and the first lady, Hillary Rodham-Clinton, recognized the completion of Ramadan by hosting a group of Muslim families at a White House reception for Id al-Fitr.

In 1999, The New York City Police Department appoints the first Muslim Chaplain, Imam Izak-El M. Pasha.

In 1999, The U.S. Post-office published a stamp to honor the Muslim leader Malik Shabazz (Malcolm X). There are two other postage stamps honoring achievements of Muslims the revolutionary heroes Peter (Salem) Saleem, and Saleem (Salem) Poor. Malcolm is the first well-known Muslim to be put on the stamp.

In 1999, The U.S. State Department hosted its first Iftar for Muslim Americans at the State Department.

In August 1999, The first Muslim US Ambassador, Osman Siddique was sworn in as the Ambassador to the Fiji Islands.

Throughout the 80′s and 90′s we have seen much growth in the Muslim community. Today Islam is the fastest growing Religion in America today and has now become the second largest religion in the United States. Today there are many Muslims across the country that are holding elected offices as local City Council members, State representatives, a Mayor, and Judges. We find Muslims in every profession today as Doctors, Lawyers, Teachers and others.

ny people and former slaves used the Islamic symbol of God's oneness on their tombstones

AND THIS IS WHERE( Jacques R, Mayo and I Bucky Pierre Mayo came in from the Burton an Salee family {MORROCCO }

In 1956, Malik Shabzz (Malcolm X) (1925-1965), becomes an active preacher for the Nation of Islam. While in prison, he was introduced to Elijah Muhammad teaching. In the early 1950s he converted and took his X. He started working with the Nation of Islam in 1952 when he was released from jail. He eventually rose to a position of leadership and was assigned to New York City Temple #7. In the late 1970s Temple #7 was renamed Masjid Malcolm Shabazz in honored of him.

In 1957, The Islamic Center of Washington, D.C. opens. The Islamic Center of Washington, DC was open on June 28th 1957. The center was built as a traditional Islamic architect structure. President Dwight Eisenhower gave the opening remarks at the opening of the Islamic Center. In his statement he says, "Under the American Constitution this Center, this place of worship is as welcome as could be any similar edifice of any religion. Americans would fight with all their strength for your right to have your own church and worship according to your own conscience."

In 1960, Masjid Muhammad of Washington, DC was built as the first Mosque built under the leadership of Elijah Muhammad. During its" first ten years the building was used as a Temple. For more than twenty years since 1975 Masjid Muhammad has functioned as a Masjid under the Sunnah or orthodox way of Al-Islam. The community has a rich history that expands more than sixty years since the mid 1930s and was known as Temple #4 in its early beginnings.

In 1962, The first Muslim American Newspaper "Muhammad Speaks" is launched. It later became the largest minority weekly publication in the country and reached more than 800,000 readers at its peak. It has undergone various name changes' Bilalian News, The A.M. Journal, to its current name Muslim Journal.

In 1963, The Muslim Student Association (MSA) was founded. It's an organization to aid foreign Muslim students attending schools in the United States. MSA now has more than 100 branches nationwide.

In 1965, Internationally known Muslim leader El Hajj Malik al-Shabazz (Malcolm X) is assassinated in New York.

In 1965, Muhammad Ali the three time world boxing champ makes the name Muhammad Ali and the Islamic faith a household name in America.

In 1968, The Hanafi Movement is founded by Hamas Abdul-Khaalis. The Hanafi Madhab Center was established in New York but later moved to Washington, DC. At it peak the community had a membership of more than 1,000 in the United States. Kareem Abdul-JAbbar, the famous basket player help bring attention to the community.

From 1960′s-1980, A fifth wave of Muslim students and immigrants came from all over the Muslim World.

From 1970-1973, Dr. Fazlur Rahman Khan, a Muslim from Bangladesh, designed the Chicago's John Hancock Center in (1970), the One Shell Plaza in Houston (1971), and the Sears Towers in Chicago in (1973).

In 1972, the Honorable Elijah Muhammad opened a $2 million Mosque and school in Chicago.

In 1973, a unique event took place. A descendant of the Beall's Family sold some property to Masjid Muhammad, then known as Muhammad's Holy Temple of Islam # 4. The Beall's is the same family that had own and freed Yarrow Marmood in the 1800s.

In 1974, The Muslim World League was granted non-governmental organizational status at the United Nations.

In 1975, Elijah Muhammad, leader of the Nation of Islam, dies February 25th.

In 1975, Warith Deen Mohammed becomes the leader of the Nation of Islam. He moved the Nation of Islam from nationalism into the Sunnah path of Islam. Under his leadership the community made many positive transitions and name changes from The World Community of Islam in the West, to the American Muslim Mission, Ministry of W.D. Mohammed, and now Muslim American Society.

In 1978, Warith Deen Muhammad is named as consultant/trustee by the Gulf States to distribute funds for Islamic missionary activities in the U.S.

In 1981, The first Islamic library was established in Plainfield, Indiana.

In 1982, The Islamic Society of North America (ISNA) was established in Plainfield, IN. ISNA is now an umbrella organization for many active Islamic groups seeking to further the cause of Al-Islam in the United States.

In 1985, Warith D. Muhammad decentralizes the old N.O.I community structure.

In the 1990s, A Somalian born Muslim working as an employee for the US Post Office invented the new self-adhesive stamp.

In the 1990s A National Shura developed in North America which comprises Imam W.D. Mohammed, Dr. Abdullah Idris Ali, President of ISNA, Imam Jamil Al-Amin, and Dr. Abdul Malik Mujahid, the Amir of ICNA.

In 1991, Imam Siraj Wahhaj, became the first Muslim in U.S. history to offer the invocation (opening prayer) to the United States House of Representatives.

In 1991, Charles Bilal, of Kountze, Texas, became the nation's first Muslim mayor in an American city.

In 1992, Imam Warith Deen Mohammed, became the first Muslim in U.S. history to offer the invocation (opening prayer) to the United States Senate.

In 1993, Captain Abdul Rasheed Muhammad became the First Muslim Army Chaplin (Imam) in the U.S. Army was installed. In 1991 according to the United States Department of Defense, there are more than 5,000 Muslims in uniform on active duty in the military.

In 1994, Council on American-Islamic Relations (CAIR) is established, a leading Islamic Human and Civil rights organization.

In 1994, Abdul-Hakeem Muhammad, a computer specialist with the IRS, won the Department of the Army's Commander's Award for Civilian Service. For his work in the field of Open systems standards and architectural environment.

In 1996, Monje Malak Abd Al-Muta"Ali ibn Noel, Jr. became the First Muslim Naval Chaplin (Imam) in the U.S. Navy.

In 1996, The American Muslim Council sponsored the first Iftar Dinner Celebration on Capitol Hill.

In 1996, The White House and the first lady, Hillary Rodham-Clinton, recognized the completion of Ramadan by hosting a group of Muslim families at a White House reception for Id al-Fitr.

In 1999, The New York City Police Department appoints the first Muslim Chaplain, Imam Izak-El M. Pasha.

In 1999, The U.S. Post-office published a stamp to honor the Muslim leader Malik Shabazz (Malcolm X). There are two other postage stamps honoring achievements of Muslims the revolutionary heroes Peter (Salem) Saleem, and Saleem (Salem) Poor. Malcolm is the first well-known Muslim to be put on the stamp.

In 1999, The U.S. State Department hosted its first Iftar for Muslim Americans at the State Department.

In August 1999, The first Muslim US Ambassador, Osman Siddique was sworn in as the Ambassador to the Fiji Islands.

Throughout the 80′s and 90′s we have seen much growth in the Muslim community. Today Islam is the fastest growing Religion in America today and has now become the second largest religion in the United States. Today there are many Muslims across the country that are holding elected offices as local City Council members, State representatives, a Mayor, and Judges. We find Muslims in every profession today as Doctors, Lawyers, Teachers and others.

ny people and former slaves used the Islamic symbol of God's oneness on their tombstones

Bosnian-American Cultural AssociationIn 1928, The early beginnings of the first Mosque of Pittsburgh were rooted in Noble Drew Ali's teaching. Several years after its foundation, the main teacher of the community, Walter Smith Bey, invited Dr. Yusef Khan an Ahmadi to speak and teach the community. During this time of growth and development by 1935 there emerged a new conflict pertaining to Dr. Khan's teachings. Most of the community members concluded against Dr. Khan and the community divided for a second time. Today the community follows the sunnah of the Prophet.

In 1929, Muslim farmers built one of America's first Mosques (Masjid) in Ross, North Dakota. The homesteader Hassen Juma had settled there with 160 free acres in 1899. By 1902, twenty families had followed his path from Birey, Syria. The U.S. objected to their naturalization until 1909 when it withdrew the ban and the Syrians began claiming citizenship. Many fought and died in the two world wars. In 1929 the community built a Mosque, and performed Jumah (Friday) prayer service. The farmhouse/mosque was destroyed in 1978. The cemetery on its grounds remains and there is an arched gate with a crescent and star on it.

In 1929, "The Lost-Found Nation of Islam in the Wilderness of North America" in Detroit was founded by W.D.Fard. Fard was known as (Wali D. Fard, Wallace Fard, and W.F. Muhammad) mystery surrounds his origins some identify him as half-Syrian, half-Jamaican some say half-Persian, half-Turkish, and the FBI says he was half-Polynesian, half-Scottish. Fard claimed he was half-European, half-Meccan genealogy. On July the Fourth, he announced the beginning of His mission which was to restore and to resurrect his lost and found people, who were identified as the original nation of Muslims of Asiatic-African descent from the tribe of Shabazz, who were captured, exploited, and dehumanized and enslaved. In 1931, Fard was preaching in Detroit, Michigan where after hearing his first lecture Elijah Poole was overwhelmed by the message and immediately accepted it. The founder of the Nation of Islam gave him the name "Karriem" and made him minister. Later he was promoted to the position of "Supreme Minister" and his name was changed to Muhammad.

Mr. Muhammad quickly became an integral part of the Temple of Islam. For the next three and a half years, Mr. Muhammad was personally taught by his teacher Wali D. Fard. Eljiah was taught some Islamic beliefs, a self-independence and empowerment concept, a history, a superior cultural belief, was inspired to read and respect the Holy Qur'an. There where about 8,000 followers at that time.

In 1933, Fard told Eljiah Muhammad that he was the Mahdi "The Saviour", the one who had come in the early morning dawn of the New Millennium to lay the base for a New World Order of Peace and Righteousness on the foundation of truth, justice, freedom, and to change the world into a Heaven on Earth.

In 1934, The Honorable Elijah Muhammad (1897-1975) becomes the leader of "The Lost-Found Nation of Islam in the Wilderness of North America" which later became known as "The Nation of Islam." The Nation of Islam, was an i-ndigenous African American Islamic expression founded by Wali Fard Muhammad and developed by Elijah Muhammad. In 1934, W. Fard Muhammad, departed the scene and left the Honorable Elijah Muhammad with the mission. By 1935, Mr. Muhammad faced many new challenges and a death plot at the hands of a few disgruntled members. To avoid the plot and to do research at the Library of Congress he moved to Washington, DC. In Washington, Mr. Muhammad studied and started a Muslim community he was known as "Mr Evans", "Ghulam Bogans", Muhammad Rassoull". The Honorable Elijah Muhammad built a mulit-million dollar empire by the time of his passing. The Nation of Islam had develop many Temples of Islam, and the University of Islam across the country, they had businesses, farms, property, rental property, transportation fleets and more. He produced many great Muslims leaders like Al-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz (Malcolm X), Muhammad Ali, Louis Farrakhan, and Imam W.D. Mohammed.

In 1934, The Muslim community of Cedar Rapids, Iowa built the first Masjid (Mosque) specifically designed and built as a Masjid. The earlier community was predominantly Lebanese under the leadership of Abdullah Ingram. Cedar Rapid's community has grown and has been able to maintain their Islamic identity.

In 1934, The Frist Mosque of Cleveland was developed by a major community of Ahmadis headed by Wali Akram from 1934-1937. By the 1940s there were two hundred people in the Masjid. As the twentieth century progressed, the direct personal influence of the Ahmadi missionaries declined. Many of the early members left the movement for a variety of reasons.

In the 1930′s, three other Mosques (Masjids) were started in Dearborn, MI., Sacramento, CA., and Michigan City, MI.

In the late 1930s, "The Addeynu Allah Universal Arab Association" a Sunni community was established in Newark, NJ under the leadership of Professor Ezeldeen who was second in command in Noble Drew Ali's movement and was known as Brother Lomax Bey. As one of the first African-American to master the Arabic language and to go aboard to study Islam in Egypt. When Professor Ezeldeen returned to the States, he rejected the teachings of the Moorish Science Temple and developed orthodox Islamic communities in several cities throughout the United States. A community was developed in upper State New York and in Southern part of New Jersey outside of Camden in a community called Ezaldeen Village. Professor Ezeldeen was responsible for establishing the first National Islamic Organization among the Sunni Muslims called "United Islamic Communities", which included Sheikh Dawud, members of the First Mosque of Cleveland and Pittsburgh along with others.

In 1939, The Islamic Mission Society is founded in New York by Sheikh Dawud.

In 1940, The first official Nation of Islam Temple #4 in Washington, DC was setup by Elijah Muhammad. Three other cities had Temples in Detroit, MN #1, Chicago, IL #2, and Milwaukee, Wn #3.

In 1941, The FBI begins its' program of harassment on the members of the Nation of Islam.

In 1942, John Ben Ali Haggin was known as Captain Johnny Haggin who became famous for his valor as the pilot of the famous submarine sinking flight, off the coast of New Jersey. John Ben Ali Haggin was born of Irish-Arabian descent on August 19, 1916, in New York City.

In 1942, The Nation of Islam begins preaching in the US prison systems in Petersburg, VA. William X Fagin, Harry X Craighhead, and Benjamin X Mitchell. In Benjamin's book he states that "Inmates began to ask us questions about our religion. The three of us began to explain to the inmates the teachings of Islam."

In 1946, The Nation of Islam bought their first Temple called Temple #2 in Chicago, Illinois.

In 1946, The first Young Muslim Women's Association was chartered in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. They had a sub-charter in Missouri that provided services such as aid for dependent children, widows, and the elderly.

1947-60, A third wave of Muslim immigrants, coming from Palestine, Yugoslavia, Lebanon and Egypt.

In 1949, The Albanian-American Muslim Center of Detroit was founded by Imam Vehbi Ismail.

By the late 1940s, a few jazz musicians became Muslims. Art Blakey, Talib Dawoud, Mohammed Sadiq, Sahib Shihab, Ahmad Jamal, Dakota Staton, Yusef Lateef, Idrees Sulieman, and McCoy (Sulieman Saud) Tyner to a name a few.

In 1950, the first mosque in the nation's capital is established as the "American Fazl Mosque" at 2141 Leroy Place, Washington, DC. It served as the Headquarters of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community from 1950-1994.

In 1952, Muslim service men sue the federal government and were allowed to identify themselves as Muslims.

In 1954, The Federation of Islamic Associations (FIA) of the US and Canada was established.

In 1955, The State Street Masjid in New York City was established by Sheikh Dawud Ahmed Faisal. It is still in use today. From this Masjid came the Dar-ul-Islam movement in 1962.

In 1955, A Mosque was established by Yugoslavians in Chicago. These Muslims arrived in the early 1900s and have evolved into an organized ethnic group with several institutions, including the

In 1864, a monument was erected in New England for a Mr. Smith and it is crowned with three slain Muslim's heads who were slain by Mr. Smith. From the Isles of Shoals.

In 1864, Captain Harry Dean was born. He was the son of Susan Cuffe Dean whose brother was Paul Cuffe. Captain Dean's family came from Quata, Morocco. For three generations the family were wealthy merchants in Philadelphia. Captain Dean found the first black nautical training school in America. Dean maintained his family's Islamic tradition during his seafaring days on the ship "Pedro Gorino" and in southern Africa where he tried to build an African empire. He was also associated with the Muslim Mosque of London. In the United States he distributed Islamic literature in Chicago, Los Angeles, Seattle, and Washington state.

In 1866, The Cherokee chief had a Muslim name, Chief Ramadan ibn Wati. Muslims were known to live among many of the different Indian tribes. They lived among the Seminole Indians, The Delawares, The Nanticokes, The Cherokees, and many others.

In 1869, a number of Muslims from Yemen arrived in the United States after the opening of the Suez Canal. Most Yemenis came through New York to Buffalo, and Detroit. Many Yemenis jumped shipped in San Francisco and settled on the West Coast.

In 1875, The first small wave of Muslim immigrants arrived, mainly from Greater Syria (Syria, Lebanon, and Palestine). Some of the Syrian-Lebanese Arabs settled on Manhattan's lower Washington Street and in Brooklyn across the East River around Atlantic Avenue and South Brooklyn. A smaller number came from the Punjab area of India.

In 1876, The Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia, attracted Arab merchants and peddlers, where they sold an assortment of merchandise, and some set up centers to import goods.

In 1877, Seven Algerian escapees from French Guyana were admitted by the Mayor of Wilmington, Delaware, and held as exiles.

In 1884, Sambo Swift died. He was born in 1811, and lived in Darien, GA. He was buried with his tombstone facing northeast. Engraved on his tombstone is a hand pointing with one finger up as the Islamic symbol of God's oneness. This symbol was used by Muslims dating back more than 1400 years. It is believed that Sambo was one of the slaves left on the Butler plantation at the time of the great slave sale of 1859 in Georgia. Sambo was a carpenter and had at least three children named Abraham, Mollie, and Alonzo.

In 1889, Edward Wilmot Blyden, a noted scholar and activist, traveled throughout the eastern and southern parts of the United States proclaiming the truth of Islam. Edward Wilmot Blyden (1832 – 1912) was born in St. Thomas, Virgin Islands on August 3rd, 1832. In 1850 he emigrates to Liberia from America and by 1855-56 became the editor of the Liberian Herald. Blyden served for three terms (1864-1871) as Secretary of State of Liberia, and on three postings as Ambassador to the Court of St. James in 1877, 1879, and 1892-94.

In 1858 Blyden was ordained as a Presbyterian clergyman. By 1886 he resigns from the Presbyterian Church and becomes a Muslim, one of the first known freed Africans to revert back to Islam. In 1887 Blyden published his first book Christianity, Islam and the Negro Race.

From 1901-1906 Edward Blyden was the Director of Mohammed Education in Sierra Leone.

In 1893, Mohammed Alexander Russell Webb (1846-1916) appeared at the First World Exposition Conference on World Religions in Chicago, where he delivered two lectures, "The Spirit of Islam" and "The Influence of Islam on Social Conditions." Among the audience was Mark Twain. Webb converted to Islam in 1888 while he was serving as the American Consul to the Philippines. He was also a Journalist. Webb is known as the first white American convert to Islam. In 1893, Mohammed found the first Islamic organization in America called "The American Moslem Brotherhood" in New York.

In 1897, The Federal government allotted free land, consequently Syrians started moving to Rugby and Williston, North Dakota. From 1899-1914 a total of 86,111 Syrians arrived in America.

In 1897, Elijah Muhammad (1897-1975) is born in Sandersville, Georgia. He became the leader of The Nation of Islam from 1934 to 1975.

In 1899, Hassen Juma had settled in Ross, North Dakota with 160 acres of free land. By 1902 twenty families had followed his path from Birey, Syria. In the early 1920s they built one of the Nations first Mosque.

In the late 1800s ma From 1900-1917 Wills are found in Washington, DC Archives beginning with Islamic salutations "With the Name of God Amen" with names like Hannah Henderson, Fontaine Mahmood, James Moore, Mary Newman, Edward Quader, and Anne Yarrow.

In 1903, Mohammed Asa Abu-Howar arrives in New York. Moves to Washington, DC. He becomes a successful builder as A. Joseph Howar, who backed the construction of the Islamic Center.

In 1904, at the St. Louis Exposition and World Fair, merchants and visitors came from the Arab world at which time an Arab used a waffle to create an ice cream cone.

In 1905, The US General Land Office grants land title to one Mahmod Ali.

In 1907, The Polish Tartars establish "The American Mohammed Society" in Brooklyn, NY.

In 1908, Muslim immigrants from the Arab provinces of the Ottoman Empire, Syria, Lebanon, Jordan arrive in North America. They are mainly Turks, Kurds, Albanians, and Arabs.

In 1913, Noble Drew Ali established the Canaanite Temple in Newark, NJ. Noble Drew Ali was born Timothy Drew, January 8, 1886 on a Cherokee reservation in Sampson, North Carolina. There were immediate challenges to Noble Drew Ali's leadership from within the Moorish community, and by 1916 internal disagreements caused a division of the Moorish-American nation into two groups. One group stayed in Newark, changing its name to the Holy Moabite Temple of the World. Moabite, is the ancient name for Moroccans. Noble Drew Ali and his followers moved to Chicago in 1925 and established the Moorish Science Temple of America. By this time, Drew Ali had established temples in Charleston, WVA; Milwaukee, WI; Lansing and Detroit, MI; Philadelphia and Pittsburgh, PA; Pine Bluff, AR; Newark, NJ; Cleveland and Youngstown, OH; Richmond and Petersburg, VA. Noble Drew Ali was murdered in 1929 in Chicago, IL and buried in Burr Oak Cemetery.

In 1915, Albanian Muslims in Biddeford, Maine established the first effective Mosque in North America. Most were bachelors working at the Peppermell Mills. Muslim Albanian families still reside in Biddeford and nearby Saco.

In 1919, The Albanians established another Mosque in Connecticut.

In 1919, an Islamic association established in Highland Park, Michigan. The organization dismantled after 5 years.

In 1920, The first Ahmadiyya Muslim missionary to arrive in America was Dr. Mufti Muhammad Sadiq, who arrived in Philadelphia on Sunday, February 15, 1920, on board the Haverford. For religious reasons he was detained on Ellis Island, New York on February 25, 1920. On May 20, 1920 he was released by the order of the Secretary of the State. Dr. Sadiq stayed in New York for some time and continued to preach Islam. Later, he moved to Chicago and in 1921 established the first headquarters of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community, at 4448 Wabash Avenue, giving it the name "Al Masjid."

In 1920, The Red Crescent, a Muslim charity modeled after the International Red Cross, is established in Detroit.

In 1922, an Islamic association was established in Detroit, Michigan.

By 1923, Hassen Mohamed became a successful businessman in Downtown Belzoni, Mississippi. He had a general merchandise store. Hassen settled in the Belzoni area in 1911 he came from the Lebanese Shiite village of Sir'een. Hassen was married to Ethel Wright together they had eight children one of their sons Ollie Mohamed became a State Senator. Hassen Mohamed past away in 1965.

In 1925, a Muslim group in Michigan City, Indiana purchased land designated as their cemetery. In the thirties, these Muslims added a Mosque/Community Center. The building is still in use.

In 1926, Duse Muhammad Ali (1866-1945), mentor of Marcus Garvey, helped establish an organization in Detroit known as the "Universal Islamic Society." Its motto was "One God, One Aim, One Destiny." He was born in Alexandria, Egypt, the son of a Sudanese mother and an Egyptian army officer. He was brought to London at a young age by one of his fathers" friends. He was known to be a frequently in the company of Muhammad Pickthall, the English Muslim scholar who translated the Holy Qur'an into English. Duse Ali had considerable influence upon Garvey's when they work together in London when Duse Ali was the Editor African Times and Orient Review.

In 1926, Polish speaking Tartars opened a Mosque in Brooklyn, NY. In the 1900s Polish Muslims came to Brooklyn, NY. In 1931 they purchase a New England church-style-meeting hall and an adjacent three-story residential building which is still in use today. The community is made up of Asian Tartars whose nomadic ancestors helped Vitautas, Grand Duke of Lithuania, in his victory against the Teutonic Order in 1410. They settled in Lithuania and Poland with the status of nobility, while remaining Muslim. They were nearly annihilated during World War II.

In 1928, The Islamic Propagation Center of America opened up on State Street in Brooklyn, New York, under the leadership of Shaikh Al-Haj Daoud Ahmed Faisal. He also started the Islamic Mission Society, which was active from 1934-1942. Shaikh Faisal was granted a charter by Shaikh Khalid of Jordan and King Saud of Saudi Arabia to propagate Islam in America.

International Declaration of Washitaw Muurs Standing

Preamble
WHEREAS, Recognition of and respect for the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable sovereignty of all Washitaw citizens is the foundation of Love, Truth, Peace, Freedom, and Justice in the world; and

WHEREAS, Disregard, contempt, overt and vicious attacks have occurred against black people (Washitaw Muurs) and their inalienable rights throughout the world, resulting in barbarous acts which have outraged the conscience of humankind, and "European racial preference" continues unabated in the present era, despite hopes and aspirations of a world in which human beings shall enjoy freedom of speech and belief, freedom of movement and travel, freedom from fear and want, freedom from deception and fraud, freedom from programmed ignorance, freedom from legislative and constitutional disenfranchisements, and freedom from systemic denials of opportunities to know the truth about our Ancient history and culture, as the highest aspiration of the Washitaw people; and

WHEREAS, The Europeans who came to our lands, and their offspring have... carried forth into future generations a solemn campaign to change the face of historical facts and realities by distortion, deception, denial, destruction, disposal, denigration, demise, devilry, dissection, demonizing, disruption, and by every device demonstrable, all over the world, by denying original black peoples, and black and European offspring alike, their right to know the truth, by renaming, reclaiming, relocating, re-recording, reckless recognitions, and a recalcitrant solemn oath to always keep the "European race" dominant over the indigenous people, signifying a clandestine pledge of allegiance to the proposition that "black people have no rights that Europeans are duty bound to respect;" and

WHEREAS, In the Beginning darkness (blackness) covered the face of the Earth, and on the First Day black people occupied all the land, and therefore, preceded the Europeans into human existence, thereby making the Europeans daughters and sons of black people, or aliens from another planet, the overt and covert contempt, therefore, for blackness, for black pre-existence, for the dominance of the black genes, and for black possession and ownership of Ancient lands is tantamount either to a malignant self-hate syndrome (white supremacy), or to a declaration of war by alien "beings" on Earth in general and upon the indigenous peoples on Earth in particular; and

WHEREAS, Black, original, indigenous, aborigine, negro, Ancient, Washitaw Muurs are the Mothers and Fathers of Earthly humans, and have been imbued by their Creatress (Mother of Creation) as a Spiritual people, close to and akin to Mother Earth, that we (Washitaw Muurs) are duly bound to protect and preserve, without bearing arms or indulging violence, do expose the programmed lies that hide the Ancient truths, toward the end that all Earthly races might come home to roost in their biological oneness from one great and mighty original gene pool; and

WHEREAS, As Her Emperial Highness, Verdiacee "Tiari" Washitaw-Tunica Goston, El-Bey has declared, regarding all the evil deeds of Europeans through previous centuries, even to the present moment, "I am willing to forget, because I can't bring the dead back!" and Washitaw Muurs everywhere (swallowing bitter emotional and psychological pain) reluctantly concur, Our Empress proclaims, regarding our Ancient lands: "But for future generations, I want to make sure we have our land;" and

WHEREAS, Documentation in The National Archives in Washington, D.C. and elsewhere confirm our Washitaw Muur presence right here on North American lands, thousands of years before the arrival of the first European, and our advanced civilization identified us as The Ancient Ones, geophysical mound builders (Uaxashaktun de Dugdahmoundyah), and our prior claim to the land was never disputed, evil deeds stole away our possession of and our control of our Ancient lands, partially identified in the record as (1) 1848 U.S. Supreme Court ruling in the case of the "U.S. Government Vs. The Heirs of Henry Turner (Tunica), in which the High Court found that "The Neutral Strip (2,961,983.5 acres of land) was definitely not a part of the territory ceded to the United States" (Louisiana Dept. of Transportation, 1940), (2) the 1992 return of 68,883 acres of land by the State of Louisiana (Land Grant #923/1991), designated "Washitaw Proper;" and (3) "Washitaw Terra" including The Floridas, and

WHEREAS, The United Nations High Commission for Human Rights recognizes the self-declarations of indigenous peoples, and acknowledges Uaxashaktun (Empire Washitaw) as "The oldest indigenous people on Earth," and assigned UN Grant Application #215 (1993) to the Washitaw History; and

WHEREAS, The United States has recognized Amurru Washitaw de Dugdahmoundyah as an indigenous people of North America and had under consideration in the 105th Congress (H.R. #260), The Guadalupe-Hidalgo Treaty Land Claims Act of January, 1997; and

WHEREAS, A series of Congressional Bills/Acts and US Supreme Court cases reaffirm national sovereignty for the heirs of Henry Turner de Bourbon (1848, Case #191: United States v. Henry Turner's Heirs); and

WHEREAS, The claim has been recorded before the World Court at The Hague (1996), that since the Treaties of Utrecht (1713) in which the Spanish de Bourbon had established themselves as the Protectorate of lands known as the Floridas, on behalf of Amurru Washitaw de Dugdahmoundyah; and

WHEREAS, On two occasions, the first, after the French and Indian War (1754-1763), and the second, after the American Revolutionary War (1775-1783), The Royal Demarcation Line as well as the 31st Parallel acknowledging the Floridas was honored; and

WHEREAS, The protection of land rights and sovereignty of Uaxashaktun (Empire Washitaw) de Dugdahmoundyah were repeatedly affirmed: (1) Treaty of San Il-defonso, 1762; (2) The British Royal Proclamation, 1763; and (3) The Treaty of Paris, 1763; and

WHEREAS, The protection of land rights and sovereignty of Amurru Washitaw de Dugdahmoundyah were also affirmed by the Treaty of Paris (1783); and in violation of that Treaty, given the Battle of Fallen Timbers (1794) and the subsequent Treaty of Greenville (1795), the Royal Demarcation Line was no longer honored by the USA/US; but rather, the Line was replaced by the Mississippi River, with the Ohio River dividing Northwest Territory (the former British Quebec) from Southwest Territory (see Northwest Ordinance and Southwest Ordinance of 1787), both came under US military control in 1787; and

WHEREAS, The Treaty of San Lorenzo (1795), also known as the Pinckney Treaty, re-established the 31st Parallel as the Southern boundary of the United States of America, acknowledging the Spanish Floridas and the French Louisiana, both serving as de Bourbon Protectorates of the lands and sovereignty of Amurru Washitaw de Dugdahmoundyah; and

WHEREAS, Given the Treaty of San Il-defonso of 1800, the de Bourbon, Charles IV ceded to Napoleon the Port of New Orleans, not the whole of Louisiana; so what Napoleon ceded to US President Thomas Jefferson was the Port of New Orleans, not the whole of Louisiana as claimed by the US in the so-called Louisiana Purchase Treaty of 1803; and

WHEREAS, The US military occupation of the whole of Louisiana and its subsequent occupation of the Floridas constitute another major violation against the land rights and sovereignty of Amurru Washitaw de Dugdahmoundyah; and

WHEREAS, Several wars were fought for control of Amurru Washitaw de Dugdahmoundyah lands: 1) The so-called Barbary/Tripolitan Wars (1801-1815); 2) The Napoleonic-Caribbean Wars (1804); 3) The War of 18l2 against the British (1812-18l5); 4) The so-called Seminole War (1817-1818); and 5) The War between The States, or the more popularly known name, the Civil War (1860-1865); and

WHEREAS, Several treaties were enacted, but particularly important to Amurru Washitaw was the Trans-continental Treaty, otherwise known as The Adamis-Onis Treaty of 18l9, taking control from the Spanish de Bourbon: 1) The Floridas, 2) The whole of Louisiana, and 3) The Pacific Northwest (later called Oregon Country/Territory); and

WHEREAS, Mexico, having gained its independence from the Spanish de Bourbon in 1821, was defeated by the United States in the Mexican-American War; and given the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo of 1848, the US had taken control of the Pacific Southwest, including Texas (1836-1845; independence and US annexation in 1845); and WHEREAS, Washitaw Proper and Washitaw Terra, consisting of some 3,030,866.5 acres of our former Ancient lands, plus The Floridas, as evidenced by lawful documentation, are proclaimed sovereign Washitaw territories, protected against friend or foe, under the great green, yellow, red, and black flag of Uaxashaktun (Empire Washitaw) de Dugdahmoundyah, by national interests of the U.S. Government, by the member signers and supporters of the Geneva Convention and the World Court at The Hague, by the Spirits of our Ancient Ancestors, and by the Great Creative Oneness that brought Washitaw Muurs into being; now therefore,

BE IT RESOLVED, That I, Verdiacee "Tiari" Washitaw-Turner Goston, El-Bey, Empress Of Uaxashaktun (Empire Washitaw) de Dugdahmoundyah Proclaim This International Declaration Of Washitaw Muur SovereigntyAs a common standard of behavior, aspiration, and achievement for all peoples of this Earth, but particularly those claiming and re-claiming their Ancient Washitaw Muurish/Moorish origins—of whatever racial color or creed or nationality they might be in the current era, to the end that every individual and every organ of every society, keeping this Declaration constantly in mind, shall strive by teaching and education, by respect and observation, by support and protection, by avocation and defense, to promote respect for and adherence to these rights and freedoms and by progressive measures, national and international, to secure their international and effective recognition and observance, both among the peoples of UN Member States, supporters, and among the peoples of territories under all jurisdictions.

Article One
All self-declaring Washitaw (human beings) are born free, sovereign, and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and value, and should act towards one another and be treated in a spirit of Love, Truth, Peace, Freedom, and Justice, the Supreme Laws governing the Washitaw History.

Article Two
Every Washita sovereign is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, color, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status (presumed or assumed).Furthermore, that no distinction shall be made on the basis of the political, jurisdictional or international status of the country or state or territory in which a Washitaw is domiciled, whether it be independent, trust, non-self-governing or under any other limitations of sovereignty.

Article Three
Every Washita sovereign has the right to life, liberty, movement, association, and security of person.

Article Four
No Washita shall be held in slavery or servitude; slavery and the slave trade shall be prohibited in all their forms, including incarceration under existing laws and statues that constitutionally exclude non-Europeans.

Article Five
No Washita shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.

Article Six
Every Washita has the right to recognition everywhere as a sovereign flesh and blood woman or man before the law.

Article Seven
As Washitaw were intentionally excluded from the Louisiana Constitution of 1879, and free Washitaw were not the subjects in the United States Constitution of 1776; and therefore, Washitaw sovereigns were never the reference in the 14th Amendment of the US Constitution, nor ever subject to the unwitting, deceptive and fraudulent contracts to the contrary, notwithstanding (all of which are herein repudiated and held to be of no force and effect upon any self-declaring Washitaw anywhere), now on into the next Millennium. Without willful acceptance of either benefits or privileges of U.S. citizens, Washitaw sovereigns reaffirm our sovereign diplomat status, as properly afforded aliens of any sovereign nation.

Article Eight
All Washitaw citizens are equal before Her Emperial Highness and under the Supreme Laws of Love, Truth, Peace, Freedom, and Justice and are entitled without any discrimination to equal protection of the History. All are entitled to equal protection against any discrimination in violation of this Declaration and against any excitement to such discrimination. All Washitaw recognize, respect and honor the historic presence and traditional status of The Royal Family.

Article Nine
Every Washita has the right to effective remedy by the competent national tribunals for acts violating the fundamental rights granted by Her Emperial Highness, Washitaw Supreme Law, or long-standing customs and practices handed down by The Ancient Ones, our ancestors.

Article Ten
No Washita shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest, harassment by the custom known as or akin to "profiling," detention or exile.

Article Eleven
Every Washitaw citizen is entitled in full equality to a fair and public hearing by an independent and impartial tribunal of other Washitaw citizens, in the determination of her or his rights and obligations and of any criminal charge against her or him.

Article Twelve
(1) Every Washita charged with a penal offence has the right to be presumed innocent until proven guilty according to Washitaw law in a public trial at which s/he has had all the guarantees necessary for her/his defense.
(2) No one shall be held guilty of any penal offence on account of any act of omission which did not constitute a penal offence, under national or international law, at the time when it was committed. Nor shall a heavier penalty be imposed than the one that was applicable at the time the penal offence was committed.

Article Thirteen
No one shall be subjected to arbitrary interference with her/his privacy, movement and traveling, family, home or correspondence, nor to attacks upon his honor, reputation, or dignity. Every Washita has the right to the protection of the law against such interference or attacks

Article Fourteen
(1)Every Washita has the right to freedom of movement and to be domiciled within the borders of each State.
(2)Every Washita has the right to leave Washitaw Proper, Washitaw Terra, or any State or country, including her/his own, and to return to his country or place of domicile.

Article Fifteen
(1)Every Washitaw citizen has the right to seek and to enjoy in other countries asylum from persecution.
(2)This right may not be invoked in the case of prosecutions genuinely arising from non-political crimes or from acts contrary to the purposes and principles of the Washitaw History or of the United Nations.

Article Sixteen
(1)Every Washita has the right to a nationality, and as a Washitaw Historical to have that sovereign status recognized, respected, and protected.
(2)No Washitaw citizen or national shall be arbitrarily deprived of her or his nationality nor denied the right to change her or his nationality.

Article Seventeen
(1)Women and women of full age, without any limitation due to race, nationality or religion, have the right to marry and to found a family. They are entitled to equal rights as to marriage, during marriage and at its dissolution.
(2)Marriage shall be entered into only with the free and full consent of the intending spouses.
(3)The heterosexual family is the natural and fundamental group unit of society and is entitled to protection by society and the State, neither this union nor the offspring of such union may be hypothecated. Moreover, if such hypothecation does occur, the Washitaw History shall receive four hundred percent of the value of such hypothecation, and one thousand time the sum for any subsequent violation of this Article.
(4)The espoused couple may request and receive a certificate confirming their recognized union, and such certificate will be acceptable proof to any other State or country, or to any of their agents; and like respect shall be shown for any certificate of evidence issued to a citizen by the Washitaw Emperial Government.

Article Eighteen
(1)Every Washita has the right to own property, alone as well as in association with others.
(2)No Washitaw citizen shall be arbitrarily deprived of her or his property; and property acquired during marriage shall be deemed community property, held in joint tenancy with automatic rights of survivorship, according to our Ancient traditions.(3)Real property within Washitaw Proper or Washitaw Terra may not be sold, except to another Washitaw citizen, one who self-declares and consistently confirms her or his biological beginnings in the dominant black gene pool of our indigenous forebears, The Ancient Ones.

Article Nineteen
Every Washitaw citizen has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion; this right includes freedom to change her or his religious belief, and freedom, either alone or in community with others and in public or private, to manifest her or his religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship and observance.

Article Twenty
Every Washita has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through media not inconsistent with the reasonably acceptable tenants of the Supreme Laws of Love, Truth, Peace, Freedom, and Justice for all humans anywhere on planet Earth.
Article Twenty-One
(1)Every Washita has the right to freedom of peaceful assembly and association.
(2)No Washita may be compelled to belong to an association.

Article Twenty-Two
(1)Every Washita has the right to take part in the activities of the Emperial Government through the traditional avenues of a Matriarchal society, given due honor and respect to the Royal Family, the Reigning Empress, and authorities designated by the Emperial Government or Her Emperial Highness, Herself.
(2)Every Washita has the right to equal access to available public services, and to access to Her Emperial Highness, or Her designated Agent or agencies.
(3)The will of the people shall be the basis of the of the governing of Her Emperial Highness, but Her authority is deemed to have passed down through The Ancient Ones from The Creatress (Mother Earth) who first created and imbued Her people with care-taking and trusteeship spirituality As such and as is our custom sustains, current Rule shall pass first along Royal Family lines, to the next Empress, or temporarily to an Emperor, at the behest of the Elders of the Royal Family.

Article Twenty-Three
Every Washita, as a member of society, has the right to food, clothing, shelter and the support of her or his community, during youth, adulthood and old age, for comfort, protection, and testimony, and is entitled to realization, through national effort and international co-operation and in accordance with the organization and resources of the Washitaw History, of the economic, social and cultural rights indispensable for each Washita's dignity and the free development of individual growth, knowledge, and happiness. Every Washita citizen has the absolute right to know the truthfulness of Washitaw history and culture, which are the corner posts of the history and culture of the human species.

Article Twenty-Four
(1)Every Washita has the right to work, to free choice of employment, to just and favorable conditions of work and to protection against abuse, fraud, physical and mental harm, and from unemployment.
(2)Every Washita, without discrimination, has the right to equal pay for equal work. Violations of this Article will be deemed among the harshest of penal crimes against the Washitaw History.
(3)Every Washita who works has the right to just and favorable remuneration ensuring for herself/himself and her/his family an existence worthy of human dignity, and supplemented, if necessary, by other means of social protection.
(4)Every Washita has the right to form and to join workers' associations or trade unions for the promulgation and enhancement of those interests held dearest. And while all Washitaw have direct responsibility for themselves and their families, each Washita has a right to not work, if s/he so chooses to substitute work for creative and lawful activities, consistent with the Washitaw spirit of Love, Truth, Peace, Freedom, and Justice.

Article Twenty-Five
(1)All Washitaw have the right to rest and leisure, including reasonable limitation of working hours and periodic holidays with pay.
(2)In their private and their public lives, Washitaw have the right and the spiritual obligation to hold the balance of Nature in highest esteem, including consuming a plant-based diet, and respecting the dignity, co-dependency, and co-existence of the animal kingdom.

Article Twenty-Six
(1)All Washitaw have the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of each member of the family unit, including food, clothing, housing and proper personal care and necessary social services, and the right to security in the event of unemployment, sickness, disability, widowhood, old age or other lack of livelihood in circumstances beyond her or his control.
(2)Motherhood and childhood are entitled to special care and assistance. All children, whether born in or out of marriage, shall enjoy the same social protection.

Article Twenty-Seven
(1)Any Washita has the right to education, to access to the truth of recorded and unrecorded history, free from the political tampering so well documented in human archives. Education shall be free, at least in the elementary and secondary stages. Elementary education shall conform to our Ancient Truths and shall be taught to all Washitaw children. Technical and professional education shall be generally available and higher education shall be equally accessible to all on the basis of merit and motivation.
(2)Washitaw education shall be directed to the full development of the human personality and to the strengthening of true knowledge of the original black races, their fundamental freedoms and inalienable rights. Washitaw education shall promote understanding, tolerance, forgiveness, and friendship among all nation, racial and religious groups, and shall further the comprehension and support for activities of the type advocated by and within the United Nations for the maintenance of peace among nations, and the respect for sovereign rights and lawful immunities.(3)Washitaw parents have a prior right to choose the kind of education that shall be given to their children.
(4)No Washitaw children shall be compelled to believe or accept or otherwise participate in any ceremonial demonstration that fosters, nurtures or encourages what is believed on Oral Tradition and/or documented evidence to be a falsification of the truth/s of human history in general and of Washitaw, indigenous history in particular.

Article Twenty-Eight
(1)Every Washitaw citizen is a flesh and blood woman, child, or man owing loyalty to, and entitled by birth, self-declaration, or naturalization to the protection of the Washitaw History. Each citizen has her or his attending duties, rights, privileges, and responsibilities as implied in our Ancient written and Oral Traditions, and as set forth in these Articles and this Declaration.
(2)Every Washitaw citizen has the right to the protection of the moral and material interests resulting from any scientific, literary or artistic production of which he is the author, creator, or originator.
(3)Every Washitaw citizen has the right freely to participate in the cultural life of the community, to enjoy the arts and to share in scientific advancement and its benefits.
(4)Every Washitaw citizen has the ethical duty and responsibility to act toward each and every other flesh and blood woman, child, or man as might be in the best interest of that woman, child or man, irrespective of any law or statue or code or compulsion, under the protection of the Washitaw Flag and the guidance of our innate Spirituality.

Article Twenty-Nine
Every Washitaw national is entitled to social and international order in which the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration can be fully realized.

Article Thirty
(1)All Washitaw have duties to the community in which alone the free and full development of their personalities is possible. And, without violence or bearing arms, it is the duty of every Washitaw citizen to defend community, culture, life, truth, justice, freedom, peace and respect for the flesh and blood woman, child and man, by all peaceful means including facing the imminence of a terminal threat.
(2)In the exercise of Washitaw rights and freedoms, all Washitaw shall be subject only to such limitations as are determined by the Supreme Laws of Love, Truth, Peace, Freedom, and Justice as also outlined in this Declaration, solely for the purpose of securing due recognition and respect for the rights and freedoms of Washitaw everywhere and of meeting the just requirements of morality, public order and the general welfare of an ethical society.
(3)These rights and freedoms may in no case be exercised contrary to the purposes and principles of the Washitaw History.

Article Thirty-One
Nothing in this International Declaration of Washitaw Sovereignty may be interpreted as implying for any State, country, group or person any right to engage in any activity or to perform any act aimed at the destruction or disrespect of any of the rights and freedoms set forth herein.

Article Thirty-Two
The evidence of recorded and unrecorded history bears out the strong and persistent likelihood that those who dominate now will continue to do so in the future. Believing such evidence will prevail, it is our Solemn Washitaw commitment that every woman, child, and man born within this History, or comes into this History, shall be taught the true story of the human experience on Mother Earth, and each Washita takes a soluem oath to this end, that "Truth, trampled to the ground, shall rise again." And, the truth shall define the eternal quality of life, for Washitaw as well as for other peoples.

Article Thirty-Three
The Washitaw History, in proclaiming this International Declaration of Washitaw Sovereignty does also acknowledge and proclaim the wisdom and intent, and adherence to and support of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights as promulgated by the United Nations and its member States.

Copyright © 1987, 1993, 2002 by Uaxashaktun (Moorish Washitaw Empire)

AMERAL Bucky P. Mayo EL Bay

THE HIDDEN HISTORY OF MU MUURS MOOR WASHITAW UAXASHAKTUN de DUGDAHMOUNDYAH
OLDEST INDEPENDENT INDIGENOUS SOVEREIGNS ON THIS WORLD

( BLESS IT BE TO THEM AND THE ANCIENT ONES WHO CAME BEFORE US )

If a Ship of War of either Party shall put into a Port of the other and salute, it shall be returned from the Fort, with an equal Number of Guns, not with more or less.
14. Ab
The Commerce with the United States shall be on the same footing as is the Commerce with Spai signed in feb 26,2012
A

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